- Purpose and Applicability
- Regulatory Oversight
- Consent Overview
- The Key Information Requirement
- Protected and Vulnerable Populations
- Diminished or Fluctuating Consent Capacity and Use of a Legally Authorized Representative (LAR)
- Subjects with Limited English Proficiency or Who Are Illiterate, Visually Impaired, or Cannot Write or Speak
- Anticipated involvement of subjects with limited English proficiency
- Unexpected involvement of individuals with limited English proficiency
- Illiterate individuals
- Visually impaired individuals
- Individuals who cannot write a signature on a consent form
- Electronic Consent
- Documentation of Consent
- Related Materials
- Regulatory References
- Version Table
Purpose and Applicability
This guidance provides researchers, the Human Subjects Division (HSD), and the UW Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) with an overview of the requirements and best practices for obtaining regulatorily compliant and meaningful consent, parental permission, and assent for participation in research. This information applies to:
- All research reviewed by the UW IRB, including non-UW institutions and sites for which the UW IRB is providing review.
- UW research reviewed by an external (non-UW) IRB.
- UW research determined to be exempt or reviewed by the Limited IRB process (except as indicated below regarding specific requirements). (Details: GUIDANCE Exempt Research and SOP Limited IRB Review)
The following specialized consent-related topics are covered elsewhere:
- Exception from Informed Consent (SUPPLEMENT EFIC), which may be appropriate when the time frame between recruiting and study procedures is too short for obtaining consent (e.g., emergency medicine studies).
- Emergency or Compassionate Use of investigational drugs or devices for clinical care (not research) (Single Patient Emergency Use).
- Clinical use of Humanitarian Use Devices.
Informed consent for research must be legally effective and obtained before the subject can participate in any study-related activities. It should include an active process of sharing information between the researcher and potential subject and an affirmative agreement by the subject that they want to participate. The concept of “implied” or “passive” consent (e.g., parental permission is assumed unless the parent “opts out” of their child’s participation in the research) does not meet the requirements for informed consent for research. Informed consent serves to:
- provide sufficient details about the study so prospective subjects can make an informed decision about whether to participate;
- facilitate understanding of what has been disclosed; and
- promote voluntariness about whether to participate.
Consent method. The method by which consent is obtained depends on the specifics of the study and the regulations that govern the research. When documentation of consent can be waived, researchers have greater flexibility in the ways in which they can design the consent process. For example, it may be appropriate to conduct an oral consent process without providing the subjects with printed consent materials if the study is a low risk, one-time interview with adults. If subjects will participate in the study remotely (e.g., low risk computer surveys) then providing the subjects with an electronic information statement would be appropriate. Regardless of the method used (e.g., oral, electronic, in-person), consent processes must include all the applicable regulatory requirements (Regulatory Oversight) unless the IRB determines any requirements can be waived.
Assent is obtained from subjects who are unable to provide legally-effective informed consent on their own behalf because they are minors or have diminished decision-making capacity. Subjects who have the cognitive capability may provide their assent to participate and a parent/guardian or legally-authorized representative (LAR) may provide consent on behalf of the subject. Alternatively, assent, LAR consent, and/or parental permission may be waived by the IRB. Failure to object should not be equated with an active willingness to participate. See the section on Assent for more information.
Subject. Unless otherwise indicated, in this guidance the term “subject” refers to: the subject, the parent(s) or guardian of a minor subject, and the LAR for a decisionally-impaired adult subject.
Recruitment. Advertisements, announcements, social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) postings, and other recruitment processes and materials are generally considered to be part of the consent process.
Which regulations apply?
Consent requirements may vary depending on the subject population, federal regulations, state laws, international laws, and institutional polices that apply to the research.
Federal agency consent requirements
It is HSD policy to voluntarily apply the Common Rule (45 CFR 46) consent regulations to all research reviewed by the UW IRB except as described in the HSD Flexibility Policy (GUIDANCE Authority and Responsibilities of HSD and UW IRB), in addition to other applicable requirements. The WORKSHEET Consent Requirements and Waivers provides a summary of the required general characteristics and elements of consent as well as the criteria for waiving required elements and documentation of consent for the Common Rule, FDA, and other federal regulatory agencies (e.g., Department of Justice). That worksheet also lists the consent requirements for federally-designated protected populations (i.e., pregnant women and neonates, prisoners, children).
State or other local law
State laws in the jurisdiction where the research is being conducted may affect the consent process (e.g., mandatory reporting; age of majority). See GUIDANCE Human Subjects Regulations, GUIDANCE Mandatory State Reporting, and the section on legally authorized representative consent for details. Researchers are responsible for identifying applicable state or other local laws when the research is conducted outside of Washington State, including internationally (see OHRP webpage for international research).
HSD policies related to consent can be found in the WORKSHEET Consent Requirements and Waivers and throughout this guidance.
More on The Purpose of Consent
An effective consent process provides the information that a reasonable person would want to have, in a transparent way, so that the prospective subjects are in control of their decision to provide authorization (or not) to participate, based on whether their own values and opinions align with those of the research, and considering the risks and benefits from their individual perspectives.
Most research generates knowledge to promote a common good. It is often funded by public sources and is increasingly integrated into health care delivery systems. In addition to the value of consent to the individual, there is a social value to establishing effective and ethical consent processes and norms to ensure accountability of the research enterprise.
More on Facilitating Informed Decision-Making
Information provided during consent should emphasize the Key Information that is most likely to assist the particular subject population with making a decision about whether to participate in research. This means that the consent process and/or form does not necessarily need to include a detailed description of every procedure the enrolled subject would undergo. Rather, it should emphasize the information that will be most influential for enrollment decisions. Subjects can be provided with tables or supplemental information sheets with additional study details after the enrollment decision has been made.
Consent information must be presented in a way that facilitates comprehension. This means providing consent information in a logical sequence and in a way that allows for real-time review during discussion between study staff and the prospective subject. Providing context that is meaningful and language that is familiar and at an appropriate reading level for the particular subject population will make the content easier for subjects to understand.
More on Written Consent Materials
Written consent materials should be presented from the perspective of the subject and what it would mean to them to participate (e.g., the pros and cons, and whys and why nots of the many aspects of the study). When consent information is provided in writing, understanding may be facilitated by breaking up dense text with sectioning, pictures, icons, schematic diagrams of study design, or putting information in side-by-side comparison tables. Headings should be subject-focused rather than regulations-focused. For example, depending on the study and population-specifics, information about risks and benefits, time commitments, and certain procedures may be appropriate under the headings, “Why I may want to participate” and, “Why I may not want to participate”. As described in Consideration 2, the consent form does not need to include every procedure the subject would undergo and should instead focus on the procedures and other information that would be most likely to influence the subject’s decision about whether to enroll in the study.
More on The Consent Process
The presentation and discussion of consent information, as well as the consent form itself, are single elements of the overall consent process. Decision-making by prospective subjects typically begins with the information presented in recruitment materials and in initial discussions with study staff, well before the consent form is presented. This information may be equally or more influential in final decision-making as the consent form. Post-enrollment communication, such as answering subject questions and providing them with relevant new information, is also part of the consent process, because subjects consider throughout a study whether they wish to continue their participation. The continued education and engagement of subjects throughout the research process is vital. In addition, it is a way to demonstrate respect and gratitude for their contribution and to maintain trust. Finally, the initial consent procedure may need to be repeated or supplemented if relevant new information becomes available or if the study involves a lengthy commitment from subjects.
More on Coercion, Undue Influence, Diminished Consent Capacity, and Vulnerable Populations
Federal regulations identify pregnant women*, prisoners, and children as Protected Populations and specify additional protections and consent requirements for them. However, these additional required protections may not be enough to ensure consent comprehension and voluntary participation for these groups. Other populations are also vulnerable to undue influence or coercion. Similar protections may be appropriate for them. These additional safeguards must be considered throughout the vulnerable subject’s participation in the study (i.e., recruitment, obtaining consent, and after enrollment).
*Pregnant women are not designated as a vulnerable population in the Common Rule or FDA regulations. However, there are additional regulatory requirements for enrolling this population for research funded or supported by the agencies that signed Subpart B. See Protected and Vulnerable Populations for additional discussion.
The Key Information Requirement
The Key Information requirement and its purpose
The Common Rule requires that informed consent must begin with a concise and focused presentation of Key Information that is most likely to assist prospective subjects or their representatives in understanding the reasons why they might or might not want to participate in the research. The Key Information must be organized and presented in a way that facilitates comprehension. Although a Key Information section may serve as an abstract or executive summary for a longer consent form, that is not its primary function.
When is Key Information required?
All consent-related materials must include Key Information if the study meets these criteria:
- The study is non-exempt human subjects research reviewed by the UW IRB (per HSD policy, it does not matter whether the Common Rule governs the study); and
- The IRB has not fully waived the requirement to obtain consent; and
- The study is fully or conditionally approved by the IRB on or after January 21, 2019 (the date when this regulatory requirement was enacted).
- This includes consent forms, online or paper information statements, e-consent information, the short form consent process, oral consent with no written component, parental permission, and LAR consent.
The Common Rule does not require Key Information in assent forms for children and decisionally-impaired adults, however, it is HSD policy to require Key Information when assent forms have more than 2000 words.
Consent materials must have a distinct Key Information section when they are more than 2,000 words (not counting any signatures sections; approximately 5 pages; single-spaced; 1-inch margins). It is HSD policy to consider shorter documents (less than 2000 words) to have met the requirement to present Key Information in a concise and focused manner because of their short length. However, the IRB has the authority to require a separate Key Information section if appropriate.
There is no specific information that must be included in the Key Information. The appropriate information depends on the nature of the study, nature of the subject population, and on the other information presented as part of the consent process and/or form. Federal guidance stresses that the Key Information should be meaningful within the context of the study and has therefore avoided strictly defining what information should be included. However, the guidance does generally expect that Key Information include a concise explanation of the following elements:
Key Information elements
- voluntary consent is being sought for research;
- research purpose, expected duration of participation, and procedures;
- the most important, reasonably foreseeable risks or discomforts*;
- reasonably expected benefits to the subjects or others; and
- appropriate alternative procedures or courses of treatment, if any.
*Risks and discomforts in Key Information should be described with the study context and subject perspective in mind. For example, if the most important risks associated with the study are from a blood draw, these risks should be described in Key Information. However, if a blood draw is only one of many procedures and the other study procedures are associated with more significant risks to subjects, then information about the blood draw may be left out of Key Information and instead described in a more detailed Risks section later in the consent process or form.
HSD tip. For most biomedical studies, information about compensation for injury, specific protections for privacy and confidentiality, and how data and specimens will be shared and stored does not need to be in the Key Information. Such information can be described elsewhere in the consent form or process.
Primary factor: the subject population. Key information is intended to be the information that is most likely to assist the specific subject population (e.g., end-stage cancer patients; first-year college students; parents of toddlers with autism; prisoners). Identifying this information is the responsibility of the researcher. This may mean that the researcher needs to consult with publications about research subjects’ preferences, disease-focused nonprofit groups, patient interest groups, or other researchers/study staff with experience with the specific population. It may also involve directly consulting selected members of the study population.
When writing Key Information, consider the following questions:
Questions to consider
- What are the main reasons a subject will want to join, or not join, this study?
- What is the research question the study is trying to answer and why is it relevant to the prospective subject?
- What aspects of research participation in this study are likely to be unfamiliar to a prospective subject, diverge from a subject’s expectations, or require special attention?
- What information about the subject is being collected as part of this research?
- What are the types of activities (procedures) that subjects will do in the research?
- What impact will participating in this research have on the subject outside of the research? For example, will it reduce options for standard treatments?
- How will their experience as a research subject in this study differ from treatment they might receive as a patient outside of the study?
- In what ways is this research novel?
- What is the anticipated time commitment for the subject?
Relationship to the rest of the consent form/materials. A Key Information section may appropriately include a summary of relevant pieces of information that are then explained in greater detail later in the consent form or process. However, information that is fully described in the Key Information section does not need to be repeated later in the form or process. Similarly, if the Key Information section includes any of the elements of consent described in the WORKSHEET Consent Requirements and Waivers, those elements do not need to be repeated later in the form or consent process. See the document, EXAMPLES Key Information).
Structure and presentation
The Key Information may be in a separate document or in the beginning of the consent form, but it must be presented to subjects at the beginning of the consent process. The Key Information requirement applies to the consent process as a whole – not simply to consent documents. In other words, there is flexibility in how the presentation of Key Information is structured if it is organized and presented in a way that facilitates comprehension for prospective subjects.
In most cases, when there is a separate Key Information section, it will be relatively short compared to the rest of the consent document or process. For example, complicated clinical trials involving high risk procedures typically involve consent forms of more than 20 pages. In these cases, the federal agencies expect that the Key Information section would be no more than a few pages. However, those agencies have also stressed that the section should be meaningful within the context of the study and have therefore purposely avoided specifying length requirements. See EXAMPLES Key Information.
Protected and Vulnerable Populations
Undue influence and coercion
Human subjects regulations require that the consent process minimizes the possibility of undue influence or coercion and notes that some populations of subjects are considered especially vulnerable. The regulations designate three “protected populations” (pregnant women, prisoners, children) that each have additional required protections. Other vulnerable groups may also require additional protections against the potential for coercion or undue influence.
Undue influence may occur through an excessive offer of something valuable or desirable that influences decision-making in inappropriate ways. Undue influence is often scrutinized by the IRB when subjects will receive significant payment for participation (see GUIDANCE Subject Payment). There are other situations when concerns about undue influence may arise. Federal regulatory guidance concedes that there is no bright line between mere influence and undue influence and so it is up to the IRB to make that distinction.
A study benefit might raise concerns about undue influence when it is likely to: 1) inhibit a potential subject’s adequate consideration of, and reflection about, important study features such as risks, burdens, and discomforts; or 2) impair a potential subject’s understanding of the research and their participation in it.
Minimizing the potential for undue influence or coercion. It is important to remember that the IRB is tasked with minimizing, not eliminating the possibility of undue influence or coercion. Whether a subject may be vulnerable to being unduly influenced or coerced to participate in research is contextual and dependent upon the individual subject’s situation, yet the IRB approves research on a population-level.
Coercion occurs when an overt or implicit threat of harm is intentionally presented by one person to another to obtain compliance. Prior to implementation of human subjects research regulations, there were many instances of subjects being coerced into research. Regulatory protections and IRB oversight have reduced the likelihood of coercion in research, but it is still something researchers and the IRB should be cautious about, particularly when researchers are in a position of power over subjects (e.g., physician and patient or professor and student).
There will be some situations (see examples) where identification of the potential for unduly influencing a subject group or groups will be clear, as will the steps for minimizing that potential. For many other situations, rather than trying to anticipate what might be unduly influential for every individual subject, the IRB should make use of existing minimization tools including some of the other regulatory consent requirements and protections that have been described in this guidance. These include ensuring that:
- subjects have adequate time to consider and discuss participation prior to giving consent; and
- consent processes and materials are understandable and include Key Information in sufficient detail for the specific subject population to be able to make an informed decision about participation.
The IRB should pay particular attention to the way a study’s benefits are described. Known benefits should be accurately described and not exaggerated. Potential or uncertain benefits should be described clearly as to what is known about the uncertainty or likelihood of the potential benefits. A meaningful consent process enables prospective subjects to decline participation in research that they judge to be harmful or inappropriate according to their own interests, values, and obligations.
Examples of undue influence and coercion adapted from an Advarra IRB blog post:
Examples of Undue Influence and Coercion
Children are a federally designated “protected population” with additional regulatory protections and requirements described in Subpart D of the Common Rule. When children participate in research, parent/guardian permission and child assent are sought rather than consent.
See GUIDANCE Involvement of Children in Research for a discussion of who qualifies as a child. See the assent section of this guidance for details about when assent must be obtained and for guidance about designing the assent process and form.
Definitions. Permission is the agreement of parent(s) or guardian(s) to a child’s participation in research. A parent is defined as the child’s biological or adoptive parent and a guardian is an individual who is authorized under applicable State or local law to consent on behalf of the child to general medical care. In general, one or both parents or guardians must be provided with the same information that is provided during an adult consent process, unless the regulatory criteria are met for waiving permission or waiving or altering elements of permission (WORKSHEET Children).
One or two parent permission. The permission of one or both parents may be required depending on the children’s risk level category as determined by the IRB (GUIDANCE Involvement of Children in Research; WORKSHEET Children).
Waivers and alterations. Parental permission can be waived or altered, and documentation of permission can be waived, under the same criteria for waiving or altering consent and consent documentation. [For FDA-regulated research, parental permission can only be waived under the minimal risk criteria.] See WORKSHEET Children for a full description of waiver criteria.
Pregnant women and neonates
Pregnant women and neonates are a federally designated “protected population” with additional regulatory requirements and protections described in Subpart B of the Common Rule. However, bioethicists now tend to view pregnant subjects as a complex or special rather than vulnerable population, because pregnancy itself does not impair a subject’s ability to comprehend an informed consent process. Some research with pregnant women may have additional complexities such as weighing the risks and benefits of both the pregnant woman and the fetus or mitigating risk of exploitation in some specific contexts. However, these potential complexities are dependent upon the specific research design and are not necessarily applicable to all studies enrolling pregnant women. It is noteworthy that, in the 2018 revision to the Common Rule, pregnant women were removed as an example of a population that is potentially vulnerable to coercion or undue influence. Subpart B consent requirements for pregnant women and neonates are listed in the WORKSHEET Pregnant Women and WORKSHEET Neonates.
Prisoners are a federally designated “protected population” with additional regulatory requirements and protections described in Subpart C of the Common Rule (GUIDANCE Prisoners). These protections, and restrictions about the types of research in which prisoners may participate, were put into place to prevent a return to past research practices that exploited prisoners by exposing them to an unfair burden of risks, coercive and unduly influential enrollment practices, and an absence of informed consent procedures. However, these same protections can unfortunately restrict prisoners’ autonomy to independently weigh what risks they are willing to assume and possibly limit their access to potentially beneficial research.
Designing consent with prisoners. Poor reading and communication skills tend to be more common in prison populations (Committee on Ethical Considerations for Revisions to DHHS Regulations for Protecting Prisoners in Research, 2006). This creates challenges for obtaining informed consent because the process typically relies heavily on written materials. For example, it has been shown that undue influence was significantly higher among prisoners with lower educational attainment and those who had spent a longer time in prison (Ravi et al., 2018). This makes it particularly important that the Key Information about a study be tailored to the prisoner population and communicated in language that is understandable to them. Allowing adequate time during the consent process for discussion and opportunities for the subject to ask questions becomes extremely important when enrolling prisoners. Providing a clear and accurate description of confidentiality measures should also be discussed in detail, given the confidentiality limits that may exist in prisons because of institutional policies. As is noted in Consent Consideration # 5, with the appropriate protections in place, prisoners may still be able to take advantage of opportunities to share in the risks and benefits of research.
Assent is a subject’s affirmative agreement to participate in research. It must be accompanied by parent/guardian permission or the consent of a legally authorized representative (see Use of a LAR). Alternatively, assent, LAR consent, and/or parental permission may be waived the the IRB. It is HSD policy that researchers must obtain assent from subjects who are minors or decisionally-impaired adults, when the individuals are capable of providing assent and when it is appropriate to do so. Researchers who do not plan to obtain assent from these subjects must provide the IRB with justification about why obtaining assent is not appropriate.
Assent determinations. The IRB must determine whether the prospective subjects are capable of providing assent and, if they are, whether the proposed assent process is adequate for helping subjects decide whether they want to participate in the research (WORKSHEET Consent Requirements and Waivers). If the IRB determines that assent is possible, the IRB may nonetheless waive the assent requirement under the same criteria for waiving consent (WORKSHEET Consent Requirements and Waivers). These determinations will depend on several factors including the age, maturity of a minor, psychological state, and/or cognitive capabilities of the prospective subjects. The decision may apply to all subjects in the study or may differ by individual subject or group of subjects.
Assent requirements. Researchers are asked to describe their plans (if any) for obtaining and documenting assent in the IRB application. The assent process and any materials should provide information that is relevant for the subject population considering their capacity for comprehension and the research procedures. There is no regulatory requirement to provide all the standard elements of consent during the assent process. There is also no requirement to document assent with an assent form, although researchers should have some way of recording that they obtained assent.
Assent outcomes. Potential subjects may express an active willingness to participate, may simply fail to object, or may dissent (express unwillingness to participate). Failure to object should not be equated with an active willingness to participate. In general, dissent should be respected. A disagreement between a parent(s)/LAR and the potential participant may arise for many reasons and every effort should be made to reach consensus between the parent(s)/LAR and potential participant. However, the IRB may allow the parent(s)/LAR wishes to prevail over the potential participant’s dissent when the potential participant may directly benefit from the research. In these cases, it may be more appropriate to waive assent, rather than ask the subject and then not take their wishes into account. A potential participant’s assent cannot override a “no” from a parent or LAR unless the IRB has waived the requirement for parental permission or completely waived consent.
Design. When designing the assent process and, if applicable, assent form, researchers should consider the nature of the research as well as the age, maturity, and psychological state of the children. When the research involves adolescents whose capacity to understand resembles that of adults, the assent procedure and form would be similar to one designed for adults. In some cases it may be appropriate to use a single form to obtain both parental permission and child assent. For younger children, researchers should focus the assent process and information on the aspects of the research that the children would be mostly likely to understand and be interested in. This would likely be a short description of what the experience would be like, how long it would take, and whether there would be any pain or discomfort as a result of participating. For studies that span several age groups, it may be necessary to design multiple assent procedures and/or forms based on the comprehension capability of the different groups.
Longitudinal research and children who reach the age of majority. The assent process should be viewed as ongoing throughout the duration of the research. If a subject enrolls in research at a young age and remains enrolled for many years, it may be necessary to re-assent as the child’s capacity to understand increases. If the child reaches the legal age of consent while enrolled, the regulations about child participants no longer apply. In these cases, unless the IRB has waived the requirement, the researcher must obtain legally effective research consent from the now-adult subject for any ongoing interactions or interventions or continued analysis of identifiable specimens or data.
Diminished or Fluctuating Consent Capacity and use of a Legally Authorized Representative (LAR)
Presumption of capacity to consent
Individuals who have reached the age of legal consent in the jurisdiction in which the research is being conducted are presumed to have capacity to give informed consent for research. In the absence of indications to the contrary (e.g., a diagnosis of advanced dementia; impaired decision-making ability due to a stroke in specific brain areas), such capacity can be assumed without further evaluation of documentation unless required by the IRB.
Nature of decision-making impairments
Decision-making impairments may be permanent, temporary, progressive, or fluctuating. Also, the capacity to consent is protocol-specific and situation-specific. For example, an individual may have the capacity to make the research participation decision for a low-risk study in usual circumstances but not have the capacity in a stressful situation to understand and evaluate a high-risk study. In other words, the presence of a cognitive impairment or cognitive-state-altering circumstances does not necessarily mean that the person is incapable of an informed consent decision. However, the IRB will expect the researcher to assess the impact of the circumstances on the person’s decision-making ability about the specific participation decision.
If an adult’s capacity to consent is reduced, then they can participate in the research only if a legally-authorized representative (LAR) provides consent on their behalf. In addition, researchers must obtain some type of assent from the subject, when the individuals are capable of providing assent (see assent). A careful balance of the Belmont Ethical Principles is vital to enrolling subjects with diminished consent capacity. So long as the additional protections afforded by LAR consent are in place to offset the subject’s diminished autonomy, it is possible that individuals with reduced consent capacity can still participate in research.
Who can be a LAR is determined by the laws of the jurisdiction in which the research is conducted. There are no Washington State laws that directly address the use of LARs in research. However, Washington State law RCW 7.70.65 defines who may serve as a LAR for providing informed consent for health care. Established legal opinion has determined that it is appropriate to apply this definition of LAR for research consent as well.
For information about who can be LAR for a minor, see the section on Parent/Guardian Permission in Protected and Vulnerable Populations and RCW 7.70.65(2) which describes the somewhat different requirements for an LAR for minors in Washington State, when the parents are not available.
Washington State Law about who can be a LAR for an adult
A LAR for an adult must be a member of one of the following classes of persons in the following order or priority:
- The appointed guardian
- An individual, if any, to whom the person has given a durable power of attorney that encompasses the authority to make health care decisions
- Spouse or state-registered domestic partner
- Children, if they are at least 18 years old
- Adult siblings
- Adult grandchildren, who are familiar with the person
- Adult nieces and nephews, who are familiar with the person
- An adult who meets all of the following criteria:
- Has exhibited special care and concern for the person
- Is familiar with the person’s personal values
- Is reasonably available to make health care (and research) decisions
- Is not any of the following: a physician for the person; an employee of the person; the owner, administrator, or employee of a health care facility, nursing home, or long-term care facility where the person resides or receives care; or a person who receives compensation to provide care to the person
- Provides the following declaration, which is effective for up to 6 months, signed and dated under penalty of perjury, that recites facts and circumstances demonstrating that they are familiar with the person and that they:
- Meet the requirements described above
- Are a close friend of the person
- Are willing and able to become involved in the person’s healthcare (or research participation)
- Have maintained such regular contact with the person as to be familiar with the person’s activities, health, personal values and morals, and
- Are not aware of a person in a higher priority class willing and able to provide informed consent on behalf of the person.
Availability. If reasonable efforts to locate and secure consent from a competent person in the first of succeeding class are unsuccessful, then consent may be given by any person in the next class in order of descending priority.
Disagreement among possible LARs. No LAR may provide consent on behalf of the person if:
- A person of higher priority has refused to give consent, or
- There are two or more individuals in the same class and the decision is not unanimous among all available members of that class.
Decision-making standard. The LAR must decide in good faith whether the person would consent to the research. If this is not possible, the LAR should consider the person’s best interests.
IRB approval and authority
Prior IRB approval of using LARs to obtain consent is not required by federal regulations. However, the IRB has the authority to limit, or explicitly not allow the use of LARs to obtain consent when such limits or prohibition is appropriate for a specific study.
Subjects with Limited English Proficiency or who are Illiterate, Visually Impaired, or Cannot write or Speak
Researchers may encounter individuals who are interested in participating in research and have the cognitive ability to consent on their own behalf, but who have limited ability to understand or read consent information presented in English, or to sign a consent form.
The consent process for these individuals must meet the same regulatory requirements as for any other consent process. This includes the requirement for consent information to be presented in a language that is understandable to the subject. The researcher may need to take additional steps to ensure the subject comprehends the consent process, has adequate opportunity to ask questions, and voluntarily agrees to participate. Accommodations to the consent form or process will be specific to the needs of the particular subject(s).
The IRB must approve the consent plan, including the process that will be used to ensure that oral and written information will be in a language understandable to subjects throughout the study and at an appropriate reading and comprehension level. The IRB has the authority to require revisions or additions to the consent process to ensure that all subjects are adequately informed and are providing truly voluntary consent.
In keeping with the Belmont Principle of Justice that selection of subjects should be equitable in terms of fairly distributing the risks and benefits of research, researchers should carefully consider the purpose of the research and the scientific question when considering the inclusion and exclusion of these subject populations. This is particularly important when the study may offer significant benefit to the individual subjects or subject population.
Anticipated involvement of subjects with limited English Proficiency
For research intended, or likely, to involve subjects who are not fluent in English, researchers are responsible for ensuring all consent information and materials are presented in a language understandable by the subjects and in a way that accurately conveys the information. Remembering that consent is a process, researchers must have a plan for ongoing communication between the research team and the subjects throughout their participation in the research.
Interpretation. Researchers must describe in their IRB application how and when interpretation will be provided and the qualifications of the interpreter(s) (e.g., certifications, experience, familiarity with research-related vocabulary in English and the target language). If no member of the research team is fluent in the subjects’ language, interpretation services should be made available throughout the course of the research.
When working with interpreters, consider the following:
- If the subject’s family members or friends will be asked to serve as interpreter, the researcher should think carefully about privacy and confidentiality issues, particularly for research that involves health or other sensitive topics. They should also ensure that the interpreter will accurately convey the information (e.g., Are they capable of interpreting complicated biomedical information?).
- It is almost never appropriate to use children as interpreters. Exceptions may rarely be allowed when the children are considered adults in the local setting, the risks are low, there are no alternatives, and there are no potential conflicts of interest.
- Researchers should discuss the consent process, including the HSD Consent Considerations, with interpreters before conducting consent. For example, how will the researcher and interpreter determine whether the subject truly understands the consent information?
Translation. Researchers must describe in the IRB application how translations will be obtained for consent and all study materials that will be presented to subjects (e.g., surveys). The qualifications of the translator must also be described. Translated documents must be: 1) linguistically accurate; 2) at an appropriate reading level for the participant population; and 3) culturally sensitive for the locale in which they will be used. The IRB review focuses on whether the translation method is appropriate rather than approving the translated text.
- Translated materials that must be provided to the IRB. It is HSD policy that researchers obtain and provide the IRB with translations for all consent materials that will be provided to the subject in written or electronic form. Translated versions of any cold contact recruitment materials (GUIDANCE Cold Contact Recruitment) must also be provided with the application. The IRB may request translated versions of any other materials.
- The IRB will request that researchers fill out the form, TEMPLATE Translation Attestation for studies that are greater than minimal risk or if they otherwise deem it necessary. Researchers should only submit this form in response to a request from the IRB.
- Who does the translation? HSD does not require researchers to use a specific translation service.
Possible translation services
- The American Translators Association maintains two online directories: Directory of Translation and Interpreting Services (by individual); Directory of Translation and Interpretation companies. http://www.atanet.org/onlinedirectories/
- Dynamic Language. UW Medicine uses and recommends this local translation service, which is experienced in working with UW researchers (including biomedical researchers) and with invoicing to UW budgets.
- Native speakers who have demonstrated proficiency in English, including knowledgeable members of the research team, academics at other institutions, bi-lingual tribal leaders, etc.
- Graduate students or instructors in foreign language programs.
Unexpected involvement of individuals with limited English proficiency
The regulations allow an alternative method of obtaining and documenting consent called short form consent. This method is intended to be used only for the infrequent and unanticipated enrollment of an individual with limited English proficiency in a study for which no consent form in the subject’s language has been prepared and there is insufficient time and opportunity to obtain an appropriate written translation of the IRB-approved English consent forms.
Short form consent requirements
- Short form written consent form. This generic document states that the required elements of consent (unless waived by the IRB) have been presented to the subject in the subject’s language, with Key Information being presented first. The short form written consent form must be translated into the subject’s language so that literate subjects have the opportunity to read it. A pre-approved English version of the generic short form consent form is posted on the HSD website [TEMPLATE Consent Form, Short (English)]. The short form written consent form is signed by the subject and a witness. A copy of the form is provided to the subject.
- Summary document. The IRB must approve a written summary of the information that will be said to the subject during the consent process. This summary is almost always the English version of the consent form. The summary document is signed by the witness and the person obtaining consent. A copy of the form is provided to the subject.
- Witness. The short form process requires a witness to the oral presentation of the consent information and the subject’s voluntary participation. The witness must be impartial (i.e., not a member of the research team), an adult, and fluent in both English and the subject’s primary language. If the interpreter is not a member of the research team, they may serve as the witness.
It is HSD policy to generally apply the guidelines described in the FDA Guidance on Informed Consent when enrolling subjects who are illiterate or who have low literacy.
- Consent materials are read to the subject in the presence of an impartial witness who observes the entire consent process.
- Sufficient time is allowed for questions to ensure subject comprehension.
- Researchers may consider using a video or audio recording of the consent process as part of documenting consent. If the consent process is not captured by audio or video, the researcher should create a written description of how the consent information was communicated to the subject and how the researcher ensured the subject’s questions were answered.
- If the IRB did not waive documentation of consent, the subject documents their willingness to participate by signing, or marking an X, on the consent form. The witness and the researcher should also sign and date the form. On rare occasions, the IRB may approve a process that involves reading the consent form to the subject and noting the consent in some official record that is not part of the research records (e.g., the subject’s medical record).
The consenting process described above for illiterate individuals may be used, but it is preferable to provide the subjects with an electronic copy of the materials which can then be examined by using an electronic device (e.g., computer) with a screen reader. In general, the use of Braille-based materials is discouraged.
Individuals who cannot write a signature on a consent form
A subject may be unable to physically sign a consent form due to some impairment (e.g., injury to hands). in these cases, the subject may “sign” the form by marking an X on the signature line. An impartial witness should witness the mark and sign the form. If the subject cannot use their hands at all, the IRB will consider alternative methods of documenting consent.
Electronic informed consent (“e-consent”) refers to the use of electronic systems and processes that employ some type of electronic media (including text, graphics, audio, video, podcasts, passive and interactive websites, biological recognition devices, card readers, etc.) to convey consent information and/or to document informed consent. These may be used in place of, or in combination with, paper-based consent methods.
Paper vs. e-consent – choosing the appropriate method
E-consent processes are invaluable when it is not possible to have an in-person interaction with a subject. E-consent can take many different forms including, consent information or documents that are delivered electronically (e.g., email, text message); passive or interactive websites; social media platforms; audio; video; podcasts; or any combination of these. E-consent may also be useful and appropriate for in-person consent interactions. For example, a consent form may be emailed in advance to a potential subject, followed by an in-person meeting in which the study is discussed, after which an electronic signature is obtained.
E-consent allows for using images, animations, embedded comprehension checks, and other technological tools that can improve consent comprehension. However, there are also potential limitations to using e-consent. The subject population will require infrastructure (e.g., reliable internet connection), hardware (e.g., smartphone, computer), and technological experience in order to benefit from the potential advantages of e-consent.
When choosing whether to employ paper-based consent or e-consent, it is important to understand the needs and capabilities of the subject population(s). To ensure subject comprehension, it might be necessary to provide consent using a combination of both paper-based and electronic methods.
Facilitating comprehension and the opportunity to consider participation
When consent is not an “in-person” process, the researcher and the IRB must consider how subjects will be provided with an opportunity to ask questions and have the research team answer them (if appropriate) and/or whether alternative ways of facilitating comprehension may be appropriate. For example, this may be accomplished through telephone calls, electronic messaging (examples: email, text messages), video conferencing, live chat, or other methods. Regardless of the subject’s location, there may also be optional information (for example, hyperlinks or help text) embedded in the electronically delivered material to aid in comprehension of key study elements. Similarly, subjects may be asked questions embedded during the electronic process to gauge their comprehension.
Regulatory requirements for e-consent
Electronic delivery of consent information must meet the same human subjects regulatory requirements as paper-based delivery of the information. This includes ensuring the information is accessible by subjects for the duration of the research and is easily retrievable for auditors and monitors.
FDA-regulated research. Use of electronic systems, archiving, and retention of consent materials must meet the FDA “Part 11” requirements. The Part 11 regulations are separate from the FDA’s human subject regulations and have nothing to do with IRB review and approval. Part 11 compliance is the responsibility of the researcher.
- The Part 11 requirements are outlined in the FDA Guidance for Industry: Part 11, Electronic Records; Electronic Signatures – Scope and Application (September 2003).
- The UW-ITHS-supported non-mobile version of REDCap meets the FDA’s Part 11 electronic system requirements. However, to fully comply with Part 11, researchers must also implement all other procedural requirements for Part 11 (e.g., limiting system access to only authorized users).
Electronic Documentation of Consent (e-signature)
Documentation of Consent
Documentation of Consent. Prior to initiating any research activities, including screening procedures or extracting information from records, federal regulations require that the subject sign the IRB-approved consent form and that a copy of the consent form be provided to the subject. HSD considers it best practice for the subject to receive a copy of the consent form that they have signed and dated, but it is not a regulatory requirement.
Waiver of documentation of consent. Alternatively, the IRB may grant a waiver of documentation of consent if the criteria are met (WORKSHEET Consent Requirements and Waivers). Most minimal risk studies will qualify for a waiver of documentation of consent. If a waiver is granted, none of the requirements listed below in this section apply to the study.
Researchers must provide the IRB with a written description of what subjects will be told during the consent process, even if consent will not be documented (i.e., no consent form). The process and information presented must include the required characteristics and elements of consent as described in the WORKSHEET Consent Requirements and Waivers. HSD recommends, and the IRB may require, that researchers provide subjects with a written description of the consent information (e.g., information statement) even when a waiver of consent documentation has been granted (i.e., no consent form).
Subject. The subject is required to sign and date the consent form to document that all their questions have been answered and they agree to participate in the research.
When a legally authorized representative (LAR) or parent/guardian provides consent, the subject’s name should be printed on the subject’s signature line. Ideally there should be a designated line for the LAR or parent/guardian signature and date, but this information can be added anywhere in the signature area of the consent form. The LAR or parent/guardian name and relationship to the subject should also be recorded in the signature area.
Researcher. It is HSD policy that for greater than minimal risk research, the consent form must contain the legible name of the person who obtained consent from the subject. The person’s signature is not required. The name may be placed on the consent form in advance of the consenting interaction. It is best practice to date the form at the time when consent is obtained. By placing their name on the consent form, the researcher is confirming that they provided the subject with information about the study, that the subject was given sufficient time to consider participation, that the researcher answered all the subject’s questions, and that the subject indicated they understood the nature of the study, including the risks and benefits of participating.
Exception: If the consent form is being used as the “summary document” when using the short form consent process, the researcher must provide a signature on the consent form. See short form consent.
Witness. Witness signatures are required by federal regulations in limited circumstances (e.g., when using short form consent) or may be required by the IRB to ensure an adequate informed consent process. A witness signature documents that the requirements for consent have been satisfied and that consent was voluntarily given by the subject.
Verification of identity
This refers to the process for confirming that the individual who provided the signature is the subject. This can be accomplished in a number of ways such as: the research team visually witnesses the signature; subjects share some form of official identification with the research team (e.g., scanned copy or digital photo); the subject answers security questions (similar to questions sometimes used by banks).
- General principle. A signature that is personally witnessed by a member of the study team, either in-person or visually using a video conferencing service (e.g., Zoom, Facetime, Skype) is generally considered sufficient verification and documentation of a subject’s identity. In all other circumstances, federal Common Rule guidance encourages researchers and the IRB to apply a risk-based approach to determine if more formal verification is required. For example, how likely is it that someone other than the subject would provide the consent and signature, and how risky would that be to the actual subject and to the integrity of the study?
- Examples where more formal verification might be appropriate include: 1) a study that involves giving alcohol to subjects (verify age); 2) a longitudinal study where it is necessary to ensure that the same person is providing information over time; and 3) a study involving access to sensitive data such as a person’s mental health or sexually-transmitted infection (STI) records.
- FDA-regulated research. The FDA requires verification of identity when electronic signatures (per the FDA definition of e-signature) are used to document consent. See Approvable Methods for Obtaining Electronic Signature for details but briefly:
- UW eSignature (DocuSign) is not valid for FDA-regulated research; and
- FDA considered the UW ITHS REDCap signature tool a “hand-written” signature so the identity verification requirements do not apply.
- Handwritten signature using a permanent method (e.g., ballpoint pen).
- Electronic signature (e.g., REDCap or DocuSign).
- Other formats. See Subjects With Limited English Proficiency or Who Are Illiterate, Visually Impaired, or Cannot Write or Speak for alternative formats.
Approvable methods for obtaining handwritten signatures
- The subject signs the consent form in the presence of the researcher. The research may begin immediately.
- The subject receives the consent form by mail or email, the consent discussion occurs by phone or video, the subject signs the form and texts or emails a photo of the signature to the researcher, and the subject mails the signed consent form to the researcher. The research may begin as soon as the researcher receives the photo of the signature.
- The IRB may approve other methods so long as they meet regulatory requirements and are consistent with any applicable local law.
Approvable methods for obtaining electronic signatures
There are many electronic alternatives to a handwritten signature, including: electronic signatures through e-signature providers such as DocuSign or REDCap, digital signatures, computer-readable ID cards, biometrics, or username and password combinations.
There are two electronic signature tools that have been vetted by the UW and its legal counsel as meeting the federal and Washington State definitions of a “legally valid” electronic signature. Review the GUIDANCE Electronic Consent Signatures for more information on how to use these tools.
- UW ITHS REDCap is a tool provided and supported by the UW Institute of Translational Health Sciences (ITHS).
- NOTE: The ITHS REDCap Mobile software application does not support a “legally valid” electronic signature under federal and Washington State law.
- UW eSignatures (DocuSign) is an electronic signatures service provider, centrally managed and supported by UW-IT.
- DocuSign is not valid for FDA-regulated research (see FDA-Regulated research under Requirements specific to electronic consent documentation).
Using a non-UW installation of REDCap may be permitted, so long as it meets all of the requirements outlined in the SUPPLEMENT Other REDCap Installation and a copy is provided with the IRB application.
Using an e-signature method not vetted by the UW is permitted on a case-by-case basis. The researcher must provide (as part of their Zipline application) a signed TEMPLATE Other E-signature Attestation Letter confirming the signature system meets all the applicable e-signature laws in the jurisdiction where the signature will be obtained and follows best practices for technical security. This letter must be signed by the Chief Information Officer, Chief Information Security Officer, or other individual at the company/institution with sufficient authority and subject matter expertise to make the above attestation. HSD and the UW will not vet other e-signature methods.
Regulatory requirements. Electronic documentation of consent must meet the same requirements as for handwritten signatures in addition to the following requirements that are specific to electronic consent documentation:
Requirements that are specific to electronic consent documentation
- Legally effective electronic signature. The signature method must be consistent with general laws about electronic signatures in the jurisdiction in which the research will be conducted. Only UW eSignatures (DocuSign) and UW ITHS REDCap have been vetted as meeting U.S. federal and Washington State requirements. HSD cannot advise researchers about the legality of other e-signature methods.
- Additional required consent/HIPAA authorization information. Washington State and federal e-signature laws require specific information to be provided to subjects when signatures are obtained electronically or through capture of a handwritten signature as an electronic record. These requirements are listed in the WORKSHEET Consent Requirements and Waivers. These requirements also apply to e-signature for HIPAA authorizations, read the GUIDANCE HIPAA for more information.
It is HSD’s general expectation that this additional required information is provided in the consent form(s) and HIPAA authorization (if applicable). In rare instances, HSD may permit the required information to be communicated to study participants via an alternative method. For example, a UW researcher participates in a multicenter trial using an external IRB and there may be no UW-site-specific form that can include this information. Any alternative method of providing this additional required information must still provide the information: 1) in writing; 2) prior to obtaining documentation of informed consent or authorization (e-signature); 3) in a manner that allows the participant to print, access it at a later date, or otherwise retain a copy in some fashion.
- FDA-regulated research. The key issues to consider are (a) the FDA’s definition of “electronic signature”; (b) the general Part 11 regulations about electronic systems; and (c) whether verification of the subject’s identity is required.
- UW e-Signature (DocuSign) is not allowed because DocuSign at the UW is not compliant with the FDA Part 11 regulations.
- UW ITHS REDCap is allowed because it is meets the FDA’s Part 11 electronic system requirements. FDA considers documentation of consent using REDCap to be a handwritten signature captured as an electronic record rather than a true electronic signature. While the FDA e-signature subject identity verification requirements do not apply, researchers are encouraged to document how identity is confirmed in case of an FDA audit.
- Other e-signature tools must be considered against the three key issues named above.
HSD and/or IRB approval. It is HSD policy that that IRB approval must be obtained in advance for the use of any e-signature or electronic signature capture system (e.g., DocuSign, UW ITHS REDCap).
- HIPAA authorization. Both DocuSign and the UW ITHS REDCap system (and equivalent, IRB-approved non-UW REDCap systems) may be used to obtain HIPAA authorization for access to PHI at UW Medicine, Seattle Children’s, and Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. E-signatures captured in any other systems are not acceptable. The authorization form must contain the electronic signature-specific consent elements as listed in the WORKSHEET Consent Requirements and Waivers. For authorization to obtain/access PHI at any other HIPAA-covered institution, consult that institution’s privacy and/or health records information office.
- Review by an external IRB. It is HSD policy that UW research that is being reviewed by an external IRB instead of the UW IRB must obtain HSD concurrence before implementing the use of e-signatures for consent and/or HIPAA authorization. This is accomplished by answering the e-signature questions in the REQUEST External IRB Review form and, if applicable, uploading the SUPPLEMENT Other REDCap Installation or TEMPLATE Other E-signature Attestation Letter to the Local Site Documents SmartForm in Zipline.
- International research. Other countries may have their own laws regarding the legal validity of an e-signature and what methods of capture are acceptable. It is the researcher’s responsibility to be aware of and comply with these laws. See online resources such as DocuSign eSignature Legality Guide. This resource is published by DocuSign and is informational only. HSD cannot guarantee that it remains current and accurate. Collaborating partners and experts in the target country(ies) may also be consulted.
The UW IRB system (“Zipline”) automatically places a watermark on consent forms when IRB approval is granted. It is best practice (but not required) for researchers to use the Zipline watermarked version of the consent form. Any non-watermarked version used must match excatly the content and format of the IRB-approved watermarked version.
Records retention and access
The original signed consent form, regardless of format (e.g., paper, electronic) is considered a research record and federal regulations require researchers to retain consent forms for a minimum of three years after completion of the research. Washington State records retention periods are much longer (see UW Records Management website).
Signed consent materials must be easily retrievable for auditors and monitors.
Other Consent Materials
EXAMPLES Key Information
GUIDANCE Consent Elements for Externally Reviewed Studies
GUIDANCE Electronic Consent Signatures
TEMPLATE Assent Form
TEMPLATE Consent Form, Short (English)
TEMPLATE Consent Form, Standard
TEMPLATE Translation Attestation
WORKSHEET Consent Requirements and Waivers
Help Materials for HSD Staff and IRB Members
SOP Consent [HSD staff and IRB member access only]
WORKSHEET Consent Review for IRB Members [HSD staff and IRB member access only]
Other Materials Referenced in this Guidance
CHECKLIST Exception from Informed Consent
GLOSSARY Capacity to Consent
GLOSSARY Exempt Research
GLOSSARY Legally Authorized Representative
GLOSSARY Legally Effective Research Consent
GUIDANCE Authority and Responsibilities of HSD and UW IRB
GUIDANCE The Belmont Report
GUIDANCE Cold Contact Recruitment
GUIDANCE Exempt Research
GUIDANCE Humanitarian Use Devices (HUDs)
GUIDANCE Human Subjects Regulations
GUIDANCE Involvement of Children in Research
GUIDANCE Mandatory State Reporting
GUIDANCE Subject Payment
REQUEST External IRB Review
SOP Limited IRB Review
SUPPLEMENT Other REDCap Installation
TEMPLATE Other E-signature Attestation Letter
WEBPAGE Is the UW IRB the Right IRB?
WEBPAGE Single Patient Emergency Use
WORKSHEET Pregnant Women
- 45 CFR 46.116 [pre-2018 requirements and 2018 requirements]
- 45 CFR 46.117 [pre-2018 requirements and 2018 requirements]
- 45 CFR 46.204 – .205
- 45 CFR 46.305
- 45 CFR 46.408
- 21 CFR 11
- 21 CFR 50.20
- 21 CFR 50.27
- 21 CFR 56.109
- 21 CFR 50, Part D
- OHRP, Guidance on Institutional Review Board Review of Clinical Trial Websites; September 20, 2005.
- OHRP Guidance Documents on Informed Consent, from the OHRP website https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/guidance/informed-consent/index.html
- OHRP, “Obtaining and Documenting Informed Consent of Subjects Who Do Not Speak English”, memorandum; November 9, 1995.
- OHRP, “Simplifying Informed Consent”, webinar https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/education-and-outreach/online-education/videos/simplifying-informed-consent-ohrp
- FDA, Guide to Informed Consent Information Sheet, July, 2014
- FDA and OHRP Guidance, “Use of Electronic Informed Consent: Questions and Answers”, December, 2016
- FDA Guidance, “Part 11, Electronic Records: Electronic Signatures – Scope and Application”, August 2003
- FDA Guidance on Conduct of Clinical Trials of Medical Products during COVID-19 Public Health Emergency (updated July 2, 2020)
- FDA. “Guidance for Industry. E6 Good Clinical Practice: Consolidated Guidance”, April 1996, section 4.8.9.
- Meeting of the Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections, Key Information videotape, July 10-11, 2018
- SACHRP Recommendations, “Attachment A – Addressing Ethical Concerns Regarding Offers of Payment to Research Participants”, October 18, 2019
- 15 U.W. Code Chapter 96 – The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act)
- National Conference of Commissioners of Uniform State Laws, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA), (1999)
- Revised Code of Washington (RCW) Chapter 19.360, Electronic Signatures and Records
- Chapter 1.80 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (Washington’s adoption of UETA)
- Committee On Ethical Considerations for Revisions to DHHS Regulations for Protecting Prisoners in Research, “Ethical Considerations for Research Involving Prisoners” (2006)
- Dickert et al., “Reframing Consent for Clinical Research: A Function-Based Approach”. American Journal of Bioethics, 17:12, 3-11 (2017)
- Dickert et al., “Partnering with Patients to Bridge Gaps in Consent for Acute Care Research”. The American Journal of Bioethics, 20(5), 7-17 (2020)
- Gelinas, L. “The Many Faces of ‘Coercion’ and ‘Undue Influence'”. Advarra Blog, Dec 2, 2020 https://www.advarra.com/blog/the-many-faces-of-coercion-and-undue-influence/
- Kraft et al., “Comprehension and Choice Under the Revised Common Rule: Improving Informed Consent by Offering Reasons Why Some Enroll in Research and Others Do Not”. The American Journal of Bioethics, 17:7, 53-55 (2017)
- Ravi et al., “Financial Payments for Participating in Research while Incarcerated: Attitudes of Prisoners”. IRB Ethics & Human Research, 40:6, 1-6 (2018)
- The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, April 18, 1979
- The PHASES Working Group, Pregnancy and HIV/AIDS: Seeking Equitable Study, “Ending the evidence gap for pregnant women around HIV and co-infections: A call to action” (2020)
- Wilfond and Kraft, “Attending to the Interrelatedness of the Functions of Consent”. The American Journal of Bioethics, 17:12, 12-13 (2017)
Open the accordion below for version changes to this guidance.
|Version Number||Posted Date||Implementation Date||Change Notes|
|1.10||10/28/2021||10/28/2021||Minor revision to HSD policy about researcher signatory requirements||1.00||10/08/2021||10/08/2021||New Guidance – transfer information from other documents as part of significant revision of consent document suite|
Key Words: Consent