What is AD/HD and how is it diagnosed?
AD/HD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. ADD (Attention-Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) are terms for conditions now included within the diagnosis of AD/HD, which is divided into three subtypes:
- AD/HD Predominantly Inattentive Type
- AD/HD Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
- AD/HD Predominantly Combined Type
Symptoms of inattention include the following:
- difficulty sustaining attention in work and play activities
- failing to pay attention to details and making careless mistakes
- failure to finish work or chores
- losing things and being forgetful in daily activities
- failure to listen when spoken to
- avoiding tasks that require sustained mental effort
Symptoms of hyperactivity include the following:
- fidgeting and squirming
- leaving one's seat in situations where remaining seated is expected
- running and climbing excessively at inappropriate times
- difficulty playing quietly
- excessive talking and rushing about
Symptoms of impulsivity include the following:
- blurting out answers before hearing the complete question
- difficulty waiting for a turn
- interrupting and intruding on others
There is no medical test for AD/HD. A medical doctor, psychologist, or other trained clinician can make a diagnosis after a thorough evaluation that includes interviews with parents, a medical history, and observations of behavior. Typically, AD/HD is diagnosed only if symptoms first appeared before age seven; have persisted for at least six months; occur in two or more settings; negatively impact social, academic, or occupational functioning; and cannot be accounted for by another disability.
Some students with AD/HD will need accommodations to succeed. For information on accommodations, see What are typical accommodations for a high school student with AD/HD? For more information about AD/HD, consult the National Resource Center on AD/HD, the Attention Deficit Disorder Resources website, or DO-IT resources for learning disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder.