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Progress in sexual assault prevention at the UW

We are in the midst of a transformative national conversation about sexual assault on college campuses. Two years ago, I established the UW’s Task Force on Sexual Assault Prevention and Response, a group of students, staff and academic personnel, to take the lead on this issue. The group established guiding principles to lay the foundation for creating cultural change, including: highlighting that the majority of sexual assaults are perpetrated by a person known to the victim; challenging the propensity for victim blaming; and understanding and defining the meaning and nature of consent. And on campus today, the UW hosted the Washington State Council of Presidents’ Conference on Sexual Assault Awareness & Prevention. Leading innovators and researchers working on sexual assault response, prevention and education issues — including our own faculty and staff — shared critical information and raising awareness about this issue in important ways.

As a public institution the UW has a leadership responsibility to help resolve this national, societal issue, and we are fully committed to doing all we can to prevent and properly respond to incidents in our community.

Over the past year, the Task Force has made significant progress in our campuswide prevention efforts:

  • More than 7,000 incoming first-year and transfer students completed sexual assault prevention training during fall 2014 orientation;
  • The UW launched a comprehensive sexual assault website last month that includes support and reporting resources;
  • We funded two permanent positions: a Title IX investigator, responsible for ensuring an investigation and disciplinary process tailored to handling sexual assault, and a training and program coordinator, charged with creating a comprehensive education and outreach program for students, staff and academic personnel.

Last January, I encouraged everyone in our community to read the Task Force’s full reportand to personally commit to being part of the solution to this systemic issue in higher education. I am asking the same again today. The Task Force’s remaining implementation items for 2015 include developing robust institutional data collection and reporting procedures, updating the Student Conduct Code to be more student centered and easy to navigate in addressing sexual assault investigations and disciplinary processes, and implementing a comprehensive education and outreach program.

Thanks to the tireless work of our faculty, staff, students and the Task Force, led by Ellen Taylor, and to our institutional commitment to ending sexual violence, I am optimistic that we can — and will — lead the way to safer communities for everyone.


Michael K. Young

Accomplishments and aspirations

Dear Students, Faculty and Staff:

During this Homecoming weekend, Husky friends, family and alumni visiting campus will have a chance to participate in our extensive efforts to operate as a sustainable university. For the past few years, our entire community — students, faculty and staff — has done amazing work to be responsible citizens and caretakers of our environment. As a great tribute to what happens when our community works together toward a common goal, just last night Seattle Business Magazine awarded the University of Washington the Community Impact Award for Sustainability. This is a wonderful achievement. Congratulations to all who made it happen!

The Community Impact Award for Sustainability is the latest example of the UW’s exceptional record of student, faculty and staff excellence. Our research, teaching and public engagement have built a reputation that inspires our work together, energizes those who support us and adds value to the degrees our students earn. Our standing in the region, nation and world — including our recent No. 10 ranking by China’s Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s world university rankings — reflects the UW’s real impact on people’s lives and our values as an institution.

As I said in my Annual Address last week, our vision as a university is simple yet profound: to be the greatest public university in the world, as measured by our impact on our students’ lives, on our region and on people around the world. In the address, I described how we advance this vision in four critical ways:

  • Through the Husky Student Experience, where we unleash the curiosity and potential of every student and in the process transform their lives and our world, one student at a time, one spark at a time.
  • Through the profound impact of our world-class research, here and around the globe. Virtually every major issue our society faces today, from Ebola to early education, is being addressed by somebody affiliated with the UW. We must continue to support this work at all levels — by attracting top talent, securing resources and engaging the best minds in the world as collaborators.
  • Through innovation and creativity, and our emerging Innovation Agenda. From addressing the STEM shortage, to bringing our best creativity and innovation to bear on both technology and societal challenges, we are using our long-standing track record in this arena to deepen student engagement and expand locally and globally.
  • And finally, through our deep commitment to access and the public good, which permeates everything we do. We are proud of our role as a catalyst for social mobility and as a place where we focus our research and discovery on the ways in which it can have the greatest impact.

You may have also noticed we are telling our story in bold new ways. I’ve heard countless times that we are the Northwest’s “best kept secret” and would like to change that. We will use this videoBe Boundless, and other media to tell our story better, and I hope in the process be clearer in communicating what we stand for: a belief in possibility, in unleashing human potential and in the undaunted quest for discovery.

Tomorrow is the UW’s 153rd birthday celebration. We have a lot for which to be proud, thanks to your passion for excellence and steadfast commitment to discovery and education for a better world. Please join me, Provost Ana Mari Cauce and our campus community in Red Square as we celebrate all that we have accomplished — and all that we will — on behalf of those we serve.

Boundless opportunities to serve Spokane

This summer, leaders from the University of Washington, Washington State University, and the Spokane community met three times in an effort to develop a collaborative path forward for expanding medical education and research in Spokane. Both Universities came to the table with different perspectives on how best to meet the economic and workforce needs of Spokane and the state, and we were privileged to have community leadership present to encourage and push us to “think outside the box” and challenge our respective positions. The conversations were productive, timely and important and have led to a new opportunity for the UW’s WWAMI program in Spokane.

At these meetings, UW Regent Orin Smith and I advocated for a new, united vision [PDF] or Spokane’s Academic Health Science and Research Center, anchored by a four-year medical school operated through an expanded and remodeled WWAMI partnership. This new, “mega-brand” partnership would immediately expand the four-year medical school in Spokane and fully capture the highest economic value for Spokane without unnecessary duplication of taxpayer costs. The vision aligned and built on the $1.6 billion vision developed by Tripp Umbach and championed by the Spokane business community in 2010.

In order to fully realize this collaborative vision and provide the best education for our students in Spokane, both the UW and WSU needed to be fully committed to its success. At our final meeting together, WSU leaders indicated that their priority, first and foremost, would be the creation of their own independent medical school. While this wasn’t the outcome we were hoping for, we respect WSU’s choice.

Out of respect for our different opinions and acknowledging that our medical students and the community need us to move forward, both institutions agreed to proceed in our own individual directions. UW and WSU leadership signed an initial Memorandum of Understanding [PDF] (MOU) last week agreeing to mutually dissolve our WWAMI partnership and setting up a process to fully transition the WWAMI program and associated state resources from Washington State University to the University of Washington in Spokane. If this transition and transfer are successfully completed prior to January, both Universities will commit to remaining neutral on respective proposals for medical education expansion next legislative session. Much work remains regarding the transition, but this MOU provides a framework for moving forward.

So, what’s next for the University of Washington in Spokane?

While the MOU marks the end of a successful, 40-year partnership with Washington State University, it also marks the beginning of boundless opportunities for the University of Washington and the Spokane community.

First, we remain 100% committed to the ongoing success of UW medical students and our four-year medical school in Spokane. The cornerstone of the UW’s WWAMI program is that it provides the #1 primary and rural medicine education program in the country to local communities across our region, and we’re committed to maintaining this standard of excellence for our students and the Spokane community. We believe the community-based WWAMI model, combined with investment in new residency programs in Eastern Washington, remains the most efficient, cost-effective and high-quality approach to solve the state’s physician shortage.

Second, we will begin a process with WSU to transition UW Medicine’s WWAMI program and the associated state resources back from WSU to the UW in Spokane. This is an important step. In order for us to expand medical education and research without delay, we need to ensure the ongoing viability of the UW School of Medicine in Spokane. President Floyd has assured me and the community members who participated in our discussions that WSU remains supportive of the ongoing success and growth of UW Medicine’s program in Spokane, so we anticipate this transition can happen smoothly and with little delay.

Next, we move full speed ahead with our plans to ask the state legislature for funding to double our medical school class size in Spokane. Paul Ramsey and Chancellor Lisa Brown jointly announced this plan a year ago at the GSI Annual Meeting in September 2013, and we intend to fulfill that promise. We have submitted our 2015–17 budget request to the Governor, and funding for this initiative will be a top legislative priority for the UW during the next legislative session in Olympia. The University of Washington is prepared to proceed with medical school expansion independently, but we also look forward to creating new and expanded academic and research partnerships with other higher education institutions in Spokane.

Finally, we are in the process of looking at several key strategies to expand and deepen our engagement in Spokane, and to improve our medical education program to best serve the needs of the city and our state. The Medical Education Access and Affordability Taskforce that I convened earlier this year will make recommendations in this regard later this month, and additional guidance will be available from Tripp Umbach in late October. I’m excited about the University of Washington’s future in Spokane. Stay tuned for major announcements later this month.

For additional information on the MOU signed last week, and for ongoing updates about our plans for expansion in Spokane, I encourage you to visit our website, Thank you for your continued commitment to your community, to our state’s medical students, and to the University of Washington.

Questioning the answer on the STEM shortage

There’s a talent shortage brewing in the Pacific Northwest. As the boundless opportunities continue to grow in our backyard, critical fields in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) are demanding more highly trained leaders, doers and thinkers. In fact, the Boston Consulting Group projects a shortage of 25,000 jobs in the next couple of years, most notably in the computer science and engineering (CSE) field.

The UW is undaunted in our pursuit to meet this pressing need for our state. This past June, the UW conferred more than 15,000 new graduate, professional and undergraduate degrees to our students. That’s more than 40 percent of all bachelor’s degrees and close to 80 percent of graduate and professional degrees in the state. Almost 45 percent of these degrees were in “high demand” fields, with one third in STEM areas. In fact, the UW has increased our STEM degree production by almost 50 percent in the past 5 years.

Despite our passion and drive toward progress, we simply must do more to support our students and our state’s thriving STEM economy. One step is to build a new computer science facility that will certainly help address this shortage, but also ensure students in non–computer science disciplines get an opportunity to take classes in this field. There are virtually no fields of study at any university that don’t require some basic knowledge of computer systems and programming. It is vital to how we teach and do research in nearly all fields — even English and history.

Expanding our capacity will allow us to roughly double our CSE graduates from 300 to 600 per year. A significant increase in CSE graduates will meet the market demands from innovators in our city and our region. And as the center for training outstanding STEM professionals, the UW will embolden the Puget Sound’s reputation as the crown jewel of technology, innovation and STEM leadership in the Pacific Northwest.

UW Professional and Continuing Education — access for all

A restless passion for serving the citizens of Washington state has inspired the UW’s mission for more than 150 years, and our continuing education program — known as UW Professional & Continuing Education (UWPCE) — has been a huge contributor to our success. Since UWPCE’s inception in 1912, its goal has remained the same: to increase access to education with programs for everyone.

From humble beginnings over a century ago, UWPCE has evolved to offer a great diversity of programs designed for “nontraditional” learners of all kinds, including children, adults, working professionals and seniors. In 1912, UWPCE served 48 students. Today, nearly 50,000 nontraditional students participate annually in its programs, more than doubling the UW’s current footprint at home and around the globe. Classes covering timely and timeless topics are offered at flexible and convenient times, enabling lifelong learners to keep pace with the present while learning from the past and preparing for future challenges.

All UWPCE programs are overseen by the vice provost for UW Educational Outreach (UWEO), and starting in mid-October Rovy Branon will take the helm. Rovy comes to the UW from the University of Wisconsin–Extension, where he served as associate dean of online learning and technology within the university extension’s Division of Continuing Education, Outreach and E-Learning. He succeeds recently retired Vice Provost David Szatmary, whose innovative leadership during his 30-year career at the University helped UWEO rise to national prominence.

To aid the community’s quest for learning, the UW offers continuing education opportunities in addition to those managed by UWPCE. These include Access, a program that allows Washington state residents over age 60 to audit regular classes on a space-available basis; the Experimental College, run by ASUW; and specialized professional training programs for those in select business, dental, legal, medical, nursing and other fields, administered by individual schools, colleges and departments.

The UW has a proud history of providing the wider community access to education, and we will continue to develop more boundless ways to serve students. We look forward to sharing our passion for education, no matter when, where or how Huskies prefer to learn.

Here is an up-to-date listing of UWPCE-managed, fee-based programs:

President Young welcomes students to the UW at Freshman Convocation

Freshman Convocation
Sept. 21, 2014
Speech transcript

WELCOME to the University of Washington.

I remember what seems not so many years ago sitting in seats very much like those in which you are sitting when I was being oriented as a freshman.

I remember days full of new experiences, new friends, new challenges, new opportunities.  Most clearly, I remember being overwhelmed and a more than a little daunted by almost everything.

But, over time, I came to understand that these full, demanding, overwhelming days were just a series of moments.

Moments of fun, boring moments, trivial moments, some were difficult and more than a few were happy and exciting.  There were forgettable and memorable moments.

I came to understand most acutely that within the series of moments, some were important.

I learned that WHAT I DID with those important moments was itself important, it mattered.

Now, I know you better than you might think.  I’ve read many of your applications.  I’ve met many of you.  You are among the most amazing, talented students who have ever walked onto this campus.  You are brilliant, powerful, curious, ambitious.

More than any other group of students I know, you have the capacity to seize important moments when they present.

I remember clearly, a moment in my sophomore year, one of those important moments that mattered, though I can’t say I understood that at the time.

I was sitting in the back of one of my classes (where I always sat in all my classes), devoutly hoping to avoid the attention of the professor (as I always did).  The course was designed to introduce us to research methodologies in the field of political science and prepare us to do some actual research of our own.  We prepared short research proposals of various kinds every week and the professor evaluated them (or, perhaps more correctly, he ripped them apart).

One day, the professor asked whether Michael Young was present in the class.  Crossing my fingers that there was another Michael Young, I put my head down and refrained from raising my hand.  He repeated his inquiry and I had no choice but to acknowledge my attendance.

He then ordered me to come talk to him immediately after class.  You have no idea how long 50 minutes is when that Damocles sword is hanging over your head.  I don’t remember anything else he said during that class, but I well remember wondering whether my father might be willing to reemploy me in his grocery store as a bag boy after I was kicked out of college.

To my utter amazement, after class the professor told me that he had seen some promise in some of the papers I had submitted and wondered whether I would like to be a research assistant on a large-scale research project he was about to begin.

I accepted with alacrity and it changed my life.

Do you know, I can draw a direct line from that moment to the moment I was sitting in my first law school class.  The list of things I learned while working with that professor is long.  I learned how to research, how to prepare an analysis, how to write a coherent argument, how to analyze data.  It helped me realize my ambition to go to law school.

I was fortunate.  That generous professor played a major role in the formation of my career.

This is a university of limitless opportunities—and generous professors.  Seek out those opportunities, make your own moments, and especially, be willing to accept help from others.

And whether the moment is expected or unexpected, seize it.

I had done well in college, in part because I had a good short-term memory.  I could master most of the material in the textbook in relatively short order and repeat it back on the test with some efficiency.  That isn’t to say I really learned the material in any useful sense, but I didn’t view that as my highest priority.  I was skiing five days a week and that seemed to take precedence.

So when I got to law school, I thought the same skill set would suffice.  The professor would assign cases to read, I would memorize and repeat them back on the exam and the professor would dutifully give me a good grade.  I’d go skiing five days a week and all would be in its proper order.

Things proceeded well right up until that first class.

The professor assigned the cases, which I memorized, fully prepared to dutifully repeat them back.

Then the professor asked the class, “Why is this relevant?”

“Because it’s written in the book,” I thought to myself.

A classmate responded with that exact answer and was promptly eviscerated by the professor.

Then it got worse.

The professor went on to ask why the judge’s reasoning in the case was wrong.

Again, I rehearsed my father’s phone number and pondered whether that bag boy job in his supermarket might still be available.

But I had wanted to be a lawyer my entire life and I decided that I wouldn’t let a little thing like being entirely clueless deter me.  So I started to study non-stop every single day.  I remember starting early in the morning and ending long after any sensible person should have been in bed.

I refined my approach to the information.  Every time I read a line or reflected on an argument, I questioned its relevance, its coherence, its correctness.  What was the purpose and result of every decision?  What impact might that decision have on other areas of law or on human behavior?  I took nothing for granted and questioned everything.

I answered every question and then I questioned every answer.

Is the expert wrong?  What does this really mean?  Is it right?  Is it possible?  Is it plausible or probable?  Is it moral or ethical?  Is it true?

I was, for the first time in my life, THINKING FOR MYSELF!!!!

And, just as I can draw a straight line from my experience in that sophomore political science class to my first day of law school, I can draw a straight line from that first day of law school to where I stand today, presiding over this wonderful university.

From studying fervently out of sheer terror, to developing a PASSION for law that has taken me all over the world, I have learned to engage in deep and meaningful exploration.

You will have many moments while you’re here to do the same.

For instance, you may read The Iliad and The Odyssey.  And when you do, ask:

What does it tell you about the human instinct and quest for power, for glory, for riches, for peace, and how does that help you better understand what is going on in the Middle East, or Asia, or even Washington, D.C.?

What does it tell you about leadership and persuading people to do something?  What does that say about how to run a corporation or a non-profit organization?

What does it teach about loyalty and rivalry?  How does our understanding the genesis of the animosity between Agamemnon and Achilles help us better understand what is happening in Iraq or Syria and how could we use that understanding to promote a more just, peaceful world?

What does the relationship between Odysseus and Penelope teach about love?  About commitment?  About how to deal with annoying boyfriends?

Maybe while you’re here, you might learn how to develop and program a computer game.

And when you do, ask whether it can be used to teach math or science to young children, just as Professor Popovich and his colleagues do in the Center for Game Learning.

Or ask whether it can be used to cure a disease, just as Professor David Baker and Biochemistry student Brian Koepnick and their colleagues do in the Institute for Protein Design, where they team up with gamers who play FOLDIT, the game they developed to learn how to design proteins that might cure AIDS or Ebola.

You might learn how to speak Japanese or Chinese or Arabic, and when you do, ask:

How do the grammatical constructions of these languages affect the way people think, the way they interact, the way they make decisions, the way they learn…?

You might study the oceans, and when you do, ask how we might harness its great energy to produce power and reduce greenhouse gasses, or how we can predict earthquakes that produce devastating Tsunamis or how we might preserve the coral reefs and their essential functions.

You might study global health, and, when you do, ask how we develop – and, equally importantly, implement – policies across the globe that genuinely and effectively improve health outcomes, like Professor Chris Murray and his colleagues in the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.


The process of asking questions AND QUESTIONING THE ANSWERS is the very purpose of this great university and it is YOUR purpose while you are here.

Asking the questions and questioning the answer will lead you to places you can hardly imagine.

It certainly did for me. I was born in a small lumber town in northern California.  My high school graduating class had 50 students. Before college, I had never been out of the United States; I had never visited more than 4 states; I spoke no foreign languages.  Indeed, I don’t remember ever meeting anyone from another country before I went to college.  I hadn’t read virtually any of the cannon of great literature. I’d dissected a frog and had blown up one chemistry lab, but that was my entire exposure to science.

By seizing my moments, I was able to do things of which I am very proud.

And I know you will too.


You will find a tee shirt that bears one of many messages.  The size may not fit you, and you can exchange it on the way out.  But the messages on the tee shirts will fit you, no matter which one you get.  These are the messages:

Dare to do.

Be the first.

Question the answer.

Together we will.

Passion never rests.

Be a world of good.

Driven to discover.

And, my personal favorite, Undaunted.

These themes reflect the amazing potential in each of you to recognize your moments.

You will seize opportunities.

You will be boundless.

You will question the answer.

You will change this world for good.

Great universities, like this one, are designed to help you believe in yourself.

This University is a network of extraordinary professors, exceptionally dedicated staff and remarkable alumni spread all over the world – all united in a shared belief in the future.

And you are that future.

Welcome to your moments.  Welcome to the University of Washington.

Celebrating the launch of Startup Hall

Seattle is a global hub for innovation, and much of that spirit and mindset begins at the UW. Our shared passion for entrepreneurism unites us as a university and a community of change creators. We are committed to fostering innovation, not just because of its economic impact, but because we know it can create a world of good.

Last year, the UW spun out a record 18 startup companies based on work done by our professors and students. During the last decade, more than a hundred UW-based startups have grown out of collaborations between our students, faculty and the business sector.

These bootstrap companies are the inspiration for the creation of a new Seattle home for passionate startup founders, funders and mentors: Startup Hall.

An exciting partnership between the UW and three local startup leaders — Founder’s Co-op, Techstars Seattle and UP Global — Startup Hall opened its doors just today. It’s the proving ground where entrepreneurs will ignite new ideas and test their visions, reaching out from the UW to the entire Puget Sound region.

Startup Hall will also launch a new era in the University District as it attracts other early-stage companies seeking to gain a foothold and grow their businesses.

This nexus of innovation is located just steps from campus, where scientists and students are conducting world-class research every day. The companies that call Startup Hall home are independent from the UW, but their proximity will spark unique connections between UW-based innovators and Seattle’s thriving startup community.

Startup Hall, the UW and the entire University District are poised to become an epicenter for innovation. By providing unparalleled experiences and support for students and entrepreneurs, we believe that our culture of commercialization will propel the greater good.

Kids in college: The new role of parents

Acceptance into a university is a defining moment in the life of a student. And for parents, it is similarly pivotal. After taking some time to savor the news and celebrate, many parents relish the vision of their son or daughter standing on the threshold of independence and a new identity, ready to embark on the long journey from home to college to kismet.

With summer days dwindling, the start of school is only weeks away. Following on the heels of other parents, you are about to step into a whole new role. Congratulations and welcome!

At the UW we believe that a strong student-parent-college partnership is essential to the success of every new Husky. Traditionally, we have engaged parents in this relationship through Parent Orientation, a summer program dedicated to demystifying the UW experience. Managed by the Office of First Year Programs, Parent Orientations provide opportunities for parents and families to learn all about the UW and the many resources we offer to help students transition to university life. One of the great outcomes of this program has been an expansion of our parents-as-partners activities.

Last spring, through Parent and Family Programs, a Division of Student Life initiative, we launched our first Husky Parents 101, a free educational workshop geared toward parents of all undergraduate students. The response was incredible thanks to our topic, “student career development,” which was identified as the number one area of interest in a 2013 survey of parents and families. Event attendance reached capacity just three hours after it was announced. We were just as thrilled by the tremendously positive post-event comments — a strong indicator of how much parents appreciate and enjoy being a part of their student’s support team.

Focus groups hosted by Parent and Family Programs are another way for parents to partner with the UW community. The gatherings are small, allowing for more opportunities to dig deeper. At our first two meetings this year, parents learned tips to quickly become involved with the University, how to successfully participate in a student’s experience without being intrusive and where to find the best resources about careers, internships, majors and job skills development. In turn, the UW received some creative ideas to better support parents and their students’ Husky Experience.

The UW is frequently asked if it offers a Parent and Family Weekend, and the answer is “we’re working on it.” Plans to expand parent volunteer opportunities are also under way. In the meantime, schools and colleges across our three campuses are working to increase opportunities to loop parents and families into UW activities. We are excited to forge ahead on this path. We know parents are not just writing checks anymore. In our modern world, parents are having a huge impact, a fact that is confirmed each time Marti and I visit China and are greeted by crowds of enthusiastic parents eager to engage in the development of their college students.

We can’t wait to partner with you and all our active Husky parents to ensure that your student has a great Husky Experience, successfully graduates from college and reaches a meaningful, rewarding destiny.


Research support from the NIH helps

What does it take to be the first in innovation, to solve the challenges that face our region, our country and our world? Certainly, it takes tenacious, brilliant minds, with a drive not only to answer the questions but also to question the answers. And, just as importantly, it takes a strong, consistent commitment of national support.

Earlier this week, we welcomed two of the most ardent supporters of groundbreaking UW research to talk about its future, Dr. Francis Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health, and Patty Murray, Washington state’s U.S. senator. Dr. Collins and Sen. Murray met with the top leaders in the Pacific Northwest’s NIH-funded research organizations, as well as groups that support and promote research development at our incomparable South Lake Union (SLU) campus.

Our group joined Dr. Paul Ramsey, CEO of UW Medicine and dean of the UW School of Medicine, for a tour of two labs at SLU. One was Michael Gale’s lab. Professor Gale and colleagues at Kineta, a Seattle biotech company, have identified compounds that stop the spread of Ebola and other viruses in laboratory experiments on human cells. His team is sharing in a five-year, $8.1 million NIH grant to identify compounds that rev up the natural infection-fighting ability of cells, allowing them to repel many types of viruses. This is just one example of how UW research can translate into saving lives around the world.

The NIH is the largest funder of biomedical research in the world, investing nearly $30 billion each year in medical research. Last year alone, $835 million of that funding flowed into our state through our SLU campus. Yet the federal investment in NIH has not kept pace with the need. During the last decade — and particularly following the government sequester in late 2013 — federal funding of the NIH has steadily declined, putting on hold research efforts here in Washington and across the country.

In addition to biomedical breakthroughs, the NIH’s investment in research has led to new startups in the region, creating high-quality jobs, attracting additional investment from outside the state and increasing the state’s exports. And at a time of unprecedented scientific opportunity, it is critical that the United States make forward-thinking investments that promote medical breakthroughs and maintain our international leadership in biomedical research. We appreciate Sen. Murray’s and Dr. Collins’ continued support of our boundless pursuit of the greater common good.