Office of Educational Assessment

Score Transformations

ScorePak® has the flexibility to calculate grades or other new score values by modifying or combining existing scores. Score transformation options vary from simple functions (e.g. adding three points to each individual’s score) to complex functions (e.g. multi-step functions leading to a linear gpa calculation, or reporting both the total correct answers and the percent correct.)

Glossary of Transformation Functions

You may request one or more score transformations in the Special Instructions box on the standard ScorePak® Service Request.

  • These transformations will be carried out as a series of steps in the order that you list them.
  • A score created in one step can be used to compute new scores in subsequent steps.
  • There is no limit to the number of steps which may be included in a run.
  • All transformation steps will be printed as functions on a page titled ScorePak® Transformations, which is part of the standard ScorePak® printout.

In general, ScorePak® functions follow normal mathematical rules. For example, you cannot divide by 0. A student must have a score to receive a percent score. Also, you cannot multiply by an undefined score value. In some cases, missing score values do not preclude creation of a new score value; but, in most cases a single student will not be assigned a new score value based on missing data. (E.g. If a student did not take Exam1, and you create Exam1PCT as a percentage, this student will have no scores for Exam1 and Exam1PCT, rather than scores of 0.)

Scores Which Can be Transformed

There are three types of scores within ScorePak®, any of which can be used in transformation steps:

  • Raw scores are computed by using a ScorePak® Key Sheet to score student answer sheets.
  • Bonus scores are entered in the box labeled “Bonus” on the student answer sheets. They are assigned to students during a scoring run by writing the bonus score name in the Special Instruction section of the ScorePak® Service Request form. A score name must be eight characters or less, must begin with an alphabetic character, should not be a score name you have already used, and may not contain any symbols other than letters and numbers.
  • Transformed scores are scores created by ScorePak® transformation steps. As noted previously, a score created in one step can be used to compute new scores in subsequent steps. Score names must not be longer than eight characters (letters or numbers), must begin with an alphabetic character, and may not contain any symbols (e.g., Exam.01, or Pre-view).

Transformation Examples

Following are examples of some things you might want to do using ScorePak® transformations.

Description Function
Add three points to every student’s “Mdtrm1” score. Mdtrm1 = INC (Mdtrm1, 3)
Add bonus score “Writn1” to raw score “Exam1” to create a score called “Total1.” Total1 = SUM (Writn1, Exam1)
Create a standardized score, called “Tscore,” based on Exam 1, with a mean = 0.0, and standard deviation (SD) = 1.0. Tscore = STAND (Exam1, 0, 1)
Add the students’ two highest exam scores (Exam1, Exam2, Exam3) to their Finals and report the totals only if the student took the Final and at least one other exam. Best2of3 = DROP (1, Exam1, Exam2, Exam3)
Total = INC (Best2of3, Final)
Create a “preliminary” percentage based on “Total” with 140 points possible. Prelim = PERCENT (Total, 0, 140)
Compute Grade from Percent based on 90% and above=4.0, 80%=3.0, and all other grades computed on a straight line through those 2 points. Round to one decimal place. Maximum grade is 4.0, and all values below 0.6 are set to 0.0. Prelim = PSLOPE (Percent, 90, 4.0, 80, 3.0)
Prelim = ROUND (Prelim,1)
Pass = EXCLUDE (Prelim, 0.6, 4.0)
Grade = SUM (0, Pass)

Writing Score Transformations

You may write a transformation in standard English, in an algebraic format, or as a function. Please be clear and explicit. Include the Score Names you will be using, and what you want to call the resulting scores.

For example: If you want to list the percent correct as well as the raw score for a student, you must tell us which exam score equals 100 percent (e.g., 100% = 40 points). If you are calculating grades, please tell us if you want the numbers rounded normally to a grade point (i.e., to 2 decimal places).

Transformations will be reported to you as a function in your ScorePak® output on a page titled ScorePak® Transformations.