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EDC&I 324 Physical Education and Health in the Schools (2)
Techniques and procedures for teaching physical education and health in elementary and secondary schools. For students in Teacher Education Program. Credit/no-credit only.

EDC&I 351 Teaching as a Profession (5) I&S, DIV Zeichner
Helps students assess the profession of teaching. Explores what becoming a teacher means, assesses the organizational structure of teaching as a career and profession, examines social attitudes about education and the work of teachers, and thinks about teaching as social justice work.

EDC&I 352 Teaching to Change the World (5) I&S Barajas-Lopez
Examines how value structures and political decisions affect systems of education. Considers particular inequalities based on race, class, and gender. Encourages students to see the course as both an academic exercise, and a vantage point for considering their own past and possible future experiences in education.

EDC&I 353 Teaching in the Elementary School (3)
Emphasizes selected teaching modes; lesson planning; classroom management procedures; grouping to accommodate pupils with special needs; utilization of learning resources; evaluation of teaching. Attention also given to school culture.

EDC&I 361 Basic Skills in Reading (3)
Developmental readiness for reading; diagnostic teaching of reading in the classroom; reading instruction for bilingual learners; reading for special learners; developing the least restrictive environment; teaching functional reading and study skills; and materials and approaches for teaching reading.

EDC&I 424 Multiethnic Curriculum and Instruction (3) I&S, DIV
Primarily for preservice and in-service teachers who have little or no previous exposure to issues related to ethnicity and schooling. Designed to help teachers better understand the school's role in the ethnic education of students and acquire the insights, understandings, and skills needed to design and implement curricular and instructional strategies that reflect ethnic diversity.

EDC&I 425 Instructional Strategies for Minority Students (3) I&S
Designed to equip educators with appropriate skills in effective teaching of culturally and socioeconomically different students. Attention is directed to understanding how these students differ from mainstream youth and what the implications are for instructional strategies in the classroom.

EDC&I 453 Teaching the Bilingual-Bicultural Student (3) I&S, DIV
Educational needs of bilingual students: research findings, special programs, materials, and methodologies that bilingual-bicultural education can provide to meet those needs. Cultural combinations of bilingual populations in American culture; historical, social, and linguistic factors affecting their K-12 education.

EDC&I 454 Cooperative Learning in the Classroom (3)
Theory and research on cooperative learning and current practices of managing such learning. Team learning activities and opportunities to plan and try out lessons and materials using several different cooperative strategies. Credit/no-credit only.

EDC&I 455 The Language Arts: Language and Learning (3)
The teaching of language arts requires research-based knowledge of language learning and its influence on listening, speaking, reading, writing, and nonverbal communication. Emphasizes techniques for building both a solid literacy curriculum and sound instructional practices.

EDC&I 456 Workshop in Instructional Improvement: Language Arts (1-6, max. 20)
Individual or group study projects on the improvement of instruction in language arts.

EDC&I 458 Content Area ESL Instruction (3)
Exposes students and engages them in how to support their English Language Learners in their content areas through sheltered instruction, specifically through the framework, Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP). Focuses specifically on the academic language needs of these students. Prerequisite: EDC&I 457.

EDC&I 459 Workshop in Instructional Improvement: Literacy (1-6, max. 18) H. HEBARD, D. MASSEY, S. VALENCIA
Study of special topics in literacy with a focus on practical, classroom topics, and application. Offered: AWSpS.
Instructor Course Description: Anne M Reece

EDC&I 460 Early Literacy Instruction (3)
Theory, research, and practice in early literacy acquisition including emergent literacy, phonemic awareness, word identification, comprehension, invented spelling, and writing. Emphasis on classroom instruction strategies for first and second language learners. Offered: A.
Instructor Course Description: Rosanne M. Greenway

EDC&I 461 Materials for Teaching Reading: Children's and Young Adults' Literature (3)
Designed to provide acquaintance with materials used in the teaching of reading. Trade books and materials from content areas are examined.

EDC&I 462 Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary and Secondary School (3) I&S
Research-based practices for explicit teaching of reading comprehension of both fiction and content-area texts including issues of reading strategies, text difficulty, teacher modeling, guided reading, discussion, assessment, and adaptations for struggling students. Offered: Sp.

EDC&I 464 Educating Native-American Youth (3)
Assists students in understanding the North American Indian child from cultural, socioeconomic, and psychological points of view. Provides opportunities for the student to apply knowledge and skills gained in other courses to prepare programs and learning aids relevant to the educational situation of the Indian child.

EDC&I 465 Social Studies Education: Elementary School Programs and Practices (3)
Stresses curriculum patterns, instructional procedures, resource materials, and the selection of content in social studies. For elementary and middle school teachers and students in Teacher Education Program.

EDC&I 468 Workshop in Instructional Improvement: Social Studies (1-6, max. 15)
Individual or group study projects on the improvement of instruction in social studies.

EDC&I 469 Teaching African American Students and Culture (3) I&S
Examination of sociocultural and pedagogical factors that influence African American students' learning styles, opportunities, and outcomes; exploration of ways to reform teaching techniques to better accommodate cultural styles and experiences to improve the educational achievement of African American students.

EDC&I 470 Science Education: Elementary School Programs and Practices (3)
Designed for classroom teachers with reference to the teaching and learning of science from kindergarten through grade 6. Emphasis is placed on objectives, methods, and materials as related to the concepts and processes of science.

EDC&I 471 Science Education: Secondary School Programs and Practices (3)
Survey of the status and potential role of science in education; trends and their implications for the teaching of both biological and physical sciences in the junior and senior high schools; representative curricula and related teaching procedures; the psychology of concept formation and problem solving; and organization of science programs.

EDC&I 472 Environmental Education for Teachers (3)
Status, selected problems, and role of environmental education in program of elementary, middle, and junior high schools. Opportunity to examine and receive instruction in use of existing environmental education instructional materials. Instruction is in the spirit of inquiry/discovery.

EDC&I 473 Workshop in Instructional Improvement: Science (1-6, max. 20)
Individual or group study projects on the improvement of instruction in science.

EDC&I 474 Multi-Ethnic Studies: Methods, Content, and Materials (3) I&S, DIV
Designed to help preservice and in-service teachers identify content and materials and devise methods for implementing ethnic studies programs and for incorporating ethnic content into regular K-12 social studies, language arts, and humanities curricula. Special attention is given to teaching about American Indians, Mexican Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, Puerto Rican Americans, and white ethnic groups.

EDC&I 475 Improvement of Teaching: Elementary School Mathematics (3)
Designed for elementary teachers. Emphasis is placed on the contributions of research to the improvement of the teaching of mathematics in the elementary school. For experienced teachers.

EDC&I 476 Improvement of Teaching: Junior High School Mathematics (5)
Exploration of mathematical concepts for the purpose of improving the teaching of middle school mathematics.

EDC&I 477 Improvement of Teaching: Secondary School Mathematics (5)
Exploration of mathematical concepts for the purpose of improving the teaching of secondary-school mathematics. For experienced teachers.

EDC&I 478 Special Topics in Mathematics for Teachers (2-9, max. 9) NW
Study of selected areas of mathematics. Designed for the improvement of teachers of mathematics. Offered: jointly with MATH 497.

EDC&I 479 Workshop in Instructional Improvement: Mathematics (1-6, max. 20)
Individual or group study projects for the improvement of instruction in mathematics.

EDC&I 482 Educational Technology in Schooling (3)
Introduction to the application of technologies (computers, telecommunications, interactive video) in schools. Designed primarily for pre- and in-service teachers, but of interest to anyone involved in technology in education.

EDC&I 485 Workshop in Instructional Improvement: Educational Communication and Technology (2-6, max. 20)
Individual or group study projects on the improvement of instruction through use of educational communication and technology.
Instructor Course Description: Katherine Law

EDC&I 488 Educational Technology and Learning in Alternative Settings (3)
How educational technology can be used to encourage learning in nonschool environments, such as museums, radio and television broadcasts, parks and recreation centers, and distance education programs. Students investigate one of these areas and prepare a project.

EDC&I 494 Workshop in Improvement of Curriculum (1-6, max. 20)
Stresses the application of procedures for curriculum development, maintenance, and evaluation. Opportunities furnished to develop and perfect strategies for program development with occasions given to utilize the strategies in master plan and materials preparation for simulated or real school situations. Specific focus of workshop is determined by instructor or by arrangement with district.
Instructor Course Description: Julio E Diniz Pereira Manka M. Varghese

EDC&I 495 Workshop in Improvement of Teaching: Selected Topics, Issues, or Problems (1-6, max. 20)
Individual or group projects to help teachers adapt instruction to selected topics, issues, or problems and to identify the approaches and instructional resources that provide the soundest learning experiences.
Instructor Course Description: Chung C Park Jessica J Thompson

EDC&I 496 Workshop in Instructional Improvement (2-6, max. 20)
Individual or group study projects on the improvement of instruction with attention to designing instructional plans.
Instructor Course Description: Manka M. Varghese Mun Julie Kang

EDC&I 499 Undergraduate Research (*)
Students developing studies under this rubric should be advised that a report or a paper setting forth the results of their investigations should be regarded as a basic part of the program.

EDC&I 500 Field Study (1-10, max. 20)
Individual study of an educational problem in the field under the direction of a faculty member. Prerequisite: approved plan of study and permission of the instructor must be filed in the Office of Curriculum and Instruction in the College of Education.

EDC&I 503 Foundations of Curriculum and Instruction (4)
Explores three critical elements of curriculum and instruction: the role of schooling in shaping students' opportunities to learn; content selection and structuring; and instruction.

EDC&I 505 Seminar in Curriculum and Instruction (1-5, max. 20)
Seminar on advanced topics in curriculum and instruction. Critical examination of current research and practice. Content varies. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.
Instructor Course Description: Grover W Mcdiarmid Dafney Blanca Dabach John R Frederiksen Ilana Seidel Horn Manka M. Varghese Mun Julie Kang Stephen T Kerr

EDC&I 506 Special Topics in Research Methods (1-6, max. 20)
Features a special topic in research design and execution such as a particular method of data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, honing a conceptual framework, or reviewing a literature. Prerequisite: EDLPS 525; EDLPS 526; EDPSY 490.

EDC&I 510 History of Educational Technology (3)
Examines the role of technology in education through history. Early systems of instruction, advent of textbooks, models for school architecture, instructional devices and teaching machines, mediated and distance learning. Focuses on the interplay between designed educational approaches and contexts in which they were implemented, and consequent success for failure.

EDC&I 511 Current Issues in Technology and Education (3)
Examines current genres of learning technology, novel approaches for integrating technology into curriculum and instruction, and recent theoretical perspectives that inform future work in educational technology. Prerequisite: EDC&I 510 or instructor permission.

EDC&I 512 Survey of Educational Technology Research (2-, max. 4)
Critically examines active research projects in educational technology. Critiques of research practice. Corequisite: EDC&I 511 and EDC&I 580.

EDC&I 524 Seminar in Teacher Education (3, max. 6)
Focus on recent research, issues, and proposals for future development in teacher education, certification, and continuing professional growth. Alternate year offering focuses on either preservice or in-service issues. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

EDC&I 525 Teacher Learning and School Change (3-4)
Synthetic study of how researchers understand what enables teachers and schools to transform themselves. Examines how the fields of teacher learning and school change can inform each other in order to enrich research and development in professional and school learning.

EDC&I 526 Inside Teacher Communities (3-4)
Examines sociocultural and philosophical work to frame notions of community. Examines studies from the sociology of education that describe and locate teacher communities, as well as studies from more psychological traditions that try to account for their potential contribution to professional learning.

EDC&I 528 Foundations of Language, Literacy, and Culture (4)
Explores the nature of literacy by examining language acquisition and its impact on literacy; historical theories and research on reading and writing processes; and how recognition and appreciation of cultural variation has changed literacy instruction and curricula over the past decades. Draws on seminal historical and current research.

EDC&I 530 Approaches to Literacy Instruction (4)
Designed to aid experienced teachers who possess background in the teaching of literacy, and presents a variety of approaches and actual analysis of approaches. Prerequisite: teaching experience and a basic course in the teaching of reading.

EDC&I 531 Seminar: Critical Review of Literacy Materials (4) H. HEBARD, D. MASSEY, S. VALENCIA
Students formulate and apply criteria for assessing materials, with emphasis on linguistic, cultural, and psychological factors; instruction effectiveness, interest level; and educational objectives. Prerequisite: teaching experience and one basic course in the teaching of reading. Offered: AWSpS.

EDC&I 532 Seminar in Literacy Research (4, max. 12) D. MASSEY, H. HEBARD, S. VALENCIA
Focuses on understanding scholarly research including various research methodologies (e.g. descriptive, correlational, experimental, quasi-experimental, qualitative) and the research questions they are designed to address. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered: WSp.

EDC&I 533 Seminar: Conducting Research in Reading (3, max. 6)
Students design and conduct original research studies in the field of reading. Emphasis on research rationale, choice of productive research types, and reporting of research results and implications. Prerequisite: EDC&I 532.

EDC&I 534 Reading Comprehension Instruction K-12 (4) D. MASSEY, H. HEBARD, S. VALENCIA
Focuses on research-based comprehension strategy instruction and text-based discussion of different types in K-12 classrooms. Examines various comprehension models, strategies for instruction, and assessments of comprehension. Prerequisite: one 400- or 500-level education curriculum and instruction course in reading or language arts or one graduate course in literature for children or young adults. Offered: S.

EDC&I 535 Seminar: Conducting Research in Response to Literature (3, max. 6)
Students design, conduct, and interpret original research studies in the field of reading literature within the context of the school curriculum. Emphasis on the analysis of literary content and structure and the relationship of those qualities to the literary experience. Prerequisite: EDC&I 534.

EDC&I 536 Inquiry and Methods in Writing Instruction (3)
Covers methods of assessment and teaching written composition, spelling, and handwriting to children and youth with, and without, disabilities. Particular attention is given to how to establish a strong writing program in elementary classrooms and how to teach writing strategies. Offered: jointly with EDSPE 528; Sp.

EDC&I 538 Discourse in the Mathematics Classroom (4)
Examines ways of looking at discourse in mathematics classrooms as it relates to teaching practice and student learning. Includes reading both seminal and cutting-edge works in the study of discourse in the mathematics classroom, looking at multiple school contexts and across grade levels.

EDC&I 539 Students' Mathematical Thinking, Curriculum, and Pedagogy (4)
Examines ways of understanding the development of students' mathematical thinking. Intensive study of classroom videos, mathematical curricula, and fieldwork enable students to study the relationship among students' mathematical thinking, curriculum, and pedagogy.

EDC&I 540 Teaching the Bilingual-Bicultural Student (3)
Educational needs of bilingual students: research findings, special programs, materials, and methodologies that bilingual-bicultural education can provide to meet those needs. Cultural combinations of bilingual populations in American culture; historical, social, and linguistic factors affecting their K-12 education.

EDC&I 541 Seminar in Bilingual Education: Organization and Structure (4)
Study of the structure and organization of bilingual programs. Includes study of the developmental and organizational factors affecting bilingual education. Assists graduate students in reviewing the historical antecedents in bilingual education and in developing a personal philosophy about bilingual education. Prerequisite: EDC&I 540 or equivalent.

EDC&I 542 Approaches to Assessing Second Language Students in K-12 Schools (3)
Examines the multiple ways of assessing linguistically diverse students in K-12 schools, including standardized and alternative assessments of these students. Prerequisite: a course in ESL methods.
Instructor Course Description: Dafney Blanca Dabach

EDC&I 543 Seminar in Bilingual Education: Instructional Strategies (4)
Study of instructional factors affecting bilingual education. Particular emphasis is given to research related to the variables involved in teaching in a bilingual environment. Assists graduate students in exploring instructional methodologies and formats as they apply to bilingual education and in becoming familiar with the current issues in bilingual education. Prerequisite: EDC&I 540 or equivalent.

EDC&I 544 Immigration and Education: Immigrant Student Perspectives (3)
Examines the multitude of factors which shape the immigrant student experience in U.S. schools. Takes an interdisciplinary perspective drawing on research from sociology, anthropology, and education, to understand teaching and learning from the perspective of immigrant students. Prerequisite: EDC&I 540 or equivalent.
Instructor Course Description: Kristin Percy Calaff

EDC&I 545 Multilingual Socialization and Development (3)
Explores the research base examining second language acquisition, in and out of school contexts. Focuses on the home language practices of linguistically diverse students with the purpose of understanding how these processes influence school learning.
Instructor Course Description: Emily Curtis

EDC&I 547 Sociolinguistics (3)
The study of language in its social context and the study of social life through language. Explores issues in the field of sociolinguistics and sharpens tools to explore educational issues related to linguistic and cultural diversity. Prerequisite: EDC&I 540 or equivalent.

EDC&I 548 Methods in Teaching English as a Second Language (4)
Prepares teachers to teach English as a second language to students who are acquiring English in K-12 settings. Emphasizes the scaffolding of the development of the four language domains; listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Prerequisite: EDC&I 540 and EDC&I 545 or permission of instructor.

EDC&I 549 Practicum in Teaching English Learners in Context (3)
Provides experiences in the field observing and working with an experienced ELL-endorsed teacher. Consists of observation; planning, teaching, and reflecting on at least two weeks worth of ELL-focused instruction lessons; and continued development of the methodological competencies needed to teach ELL students through seminar sessions at the practicum site.

EDC&I 550 Educational Technology Research (3)
Analysis, critique, and practical experience with research studies of all types (experimental, ethnographic, evaluation) concerning questions of interest to educational technologists. Prerequisite: EDC&I 480, a research methods course, or permission of instructor.

EDC&I 551 Introduction to Instructional Design (3)
An experimental course in analyzing, designing, developing, and formatively evaluating instructional products using the Instructional Systems Design (ISD) Mode. Also, discussion of how to successfully implement an instructional product/program within an organization using change management principles. Business and industry training focus.

EDC&I 552 Management of Educational Technology Programs (3)
Factors contributing to effective management of programs incorporating educational technology and microcomputers. Manager's role as agent of instructional change and processes leading to successful adoption and long-term implementation of a new instructional system. Prerequisite: EDC&I 510.
Instructor Course Description: Stephen T Kerr

EDC&I 553 Seminar on Instructional Systems Development (3)
Critical analysis of processes involved in the development of instructional systems. Prerequisite: EDC&I 481 or permission of instructor.

EDC&I 556 Elementary School Curriculum (4)
Study of elementary school curriculum, its design, rationale, and delivery. Current trends and issues affecting elementary school curriculum analyzed.

EDC&I 558 Secondary School Curriculum (4)
Systematic analysis of current curriculum practices, with particular emphasis on the social and historical forces affecting secondary-school curriculum.

EDC&I 559 Principles and Procedures of Curriculum Development (3)
Intensive study of basic principles and procedures utilized in development of curricula. Participants have opportunities to apply such procedures in class activities. Attention given to curriculum foundations.

EDC&I 560 Social Studies Education Programs and Practices (3)
Stresses powerful instructional strategies, materials, and a selection of content in social studies education. For experienced teachers and non-social studies students in the Teacher Education Program.

EDC&I 561 Instruction for Under-Achieving Readers (2-10, max. 20) D. MASSEY, H. HEBARD, S. VALENCIA
Covers instructional techniques addressing the comprehension, decoding, vocabulary, and fluency needs for under-achieving readers as well as strategies for assessing students' reading abilities and planning for instruction. Prerequisite: EDC&I 455.

EDC&I 562 Seminar in Reading and Language Arts: Secondary Emphasis (3)
Study of recent research in listening, oral language, reading, and written language, emphasizing psychological and interrelated aspects. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

EDC&I 563 Current Issues in Literacy Education (1-3, max. 20)
Discussion of problems and issues of current interest and importance in language arts education.

EDC&I 565 Seminar in Social Studies Education: Elementary Emphasis (3)
Intensive study of the social studies curriculum, with particular emphasis on current literature and research. Prerequisite: EDC&I 465 or equivalent.

EDC&I 566 Seminar in Social Studies Education: Secondary Emphasis (3)
Intensive study of the social studies curriculum, with particular emphasis on current literature and research. Prerequisite: EDC&I 466 or equivalent.

EDC&I 567 Current Issues in Social Studies Education (1-3, max. 20)
Discussion of problems and issues of current interest and importance in social studies education.

EDC&I 569 Educating Ethnic Minority Youths (4)
Intensive analysis and review of the research and curricular programs related to the social, psychological, and political factors that influence the school experiences of ethnic minority youths. Special attention given to instructional and curricular programs for African American, American Indian, Mexican American, Puerto Rican American, and Asian American students. Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor.

EDC&I 570 Seminar in Science Education: Elementary Emphasis (3)
Investigation of curriculum and instruction in science at elementary-school levels, with particular emphasis on current literature and research. Prerequisite: EDC&I 470 or equivalent.

EDC&I 571 Ambitious Learning by Design in Science Classrooms (4)
Explores the frontiers of research in science learning environments that are both rigorous and equitable. Allows individuals to wrestle with the current problems of teaching and learning, including how to design opportunities for all students to participate in the discourses and practice of science. Prerequisite: EDC&I 471 or equivalent.
Instructor Course Description: Jessica J Thompson

EDC&I 572 Current Issues in Science Education (1-5, max. 6)
Discussion of topics and problems of current interest and importance in science education.

EDC&I 573 School Reform and Multicultural Education (3)
Similarities and differences among the visions, goals, and strategies of proposals for school reform and multicultural education are analyzed; implications for practice in curriculum and instruction are deduced from these analyses. Prerequisite: one course in multicultural education or permission of instructor.

EDC&I 574 Race, Gender, and Knowledge Construction: Curriculum Considerations (3)
Using historical and contemporary perspectives, considers ways in which knowledge related to race and gender has been and is constructed and the implications of ways in which knowledge is constructed for curriculum reform and teaching. Prerequisite: one course in ethnic studies, multicultural education, or women studies or permission or instructor.

EDC&I 575 Seminar in Mathematics Education: Elementary Emphasis (3)
Investigation of curriculum and instruction in mathematics at the elementary-school level; review of research and preparation of proposals.
Instructor Course Description: Elham Kazemi Ilana Seidel Horn

EDC&I 576 Seminar in Mathematics Education: Secondary Emphasis (3)
Investigation of curriculum and instruction in mathematics at the secondary-school level; review of research and preparation of proposals.
Instructor Course Description: Ilana Seidel Horn

EDC&I 577 Current Issues in Mathematics Education (1, max. 20)
Discussion of problems and issues of current interest and importance in mathematics education.
Instructor Course Description: Ilana Seidel Horn

EDC&I 578 Qualitative Methods of Educational Research (5-)
Survey of various qualitative research methods from a variety of disciplinary perspectives (anthropology, sociology, applied linguistics, cognitive psychology, policy analysis, and evaluation) with intensive experience in collection, analysis, and reporting of data. Prerequisite: second-year doctoral standing and one course in statistics, and permission of instructor. Offered: jointly with EDPSY 586; A.

EDC&I 579 Qualitative Methods of Educational Research (-5)
Survey of various qualitative research methods from a variety of disciplinary perspectives (anthropology, sociology, applied linguistics, cognitive psychology, policy analysis, and evaluation) with intensive experience in collection, analysis, and reporting of data. Prerequisite: EDPSY 586/EDC&I 578; second-year doctoral standing and one course in statistics. Offered: jointly with EDPSY 587; Sp.

EDC&I 580 Technology in Context (3)
Focuses on development of appropriate methods and concepts for research on technology in schools, workplaces, and other naturalistic settings. Fieldwork exercises and reading exemplary studies from multiple disciplinary perspectives. Prerequisite: EDC&I 510, EDC&I 511. Co-requisite: EDC&I 512; or permission of instructor.

EDC&I 581 Cognitive Systems Design (3)
Covers the design of applied technology-based learning systems, informed by current views of learning, technology, and cognition. Emphasizes synthesizing students' knowledge of technology, learning and research in collaborative settings. Prerequisite: EDC&I 510, EDC&I 511, EDC&I 512, EDC&I 580, or permission of instructor.

EDC&I 582 Design Experimentation and Implementation in Context (3)
Introduces theoretical, methodological, and practical issues involved with studying the designed use of learning technologies in real world settings. Focuses on engaging in empirical study of the designed system through partnerships involving education researchers, educators, and technologists. Prerequisite: EDC&I 510, EDC&I 511, EDC&I 512, EDC&I 580, EDC&I 581, or permission of instructor.

EDC&I 583 Message Design (3)
Research and theory on design of instructional messages in various modalities (visual, auditory), and in various formats (pictorial, verbal, graphic). Prerequisite: EDC&I 480 or permission of instructor.

EDC&I 585 Technology and the Culture of Education (3)
Social impact of technology on education in the United States and elsewhere: social, political, and cultural factors affecting educational communication and technology; roles and relationships among instructors and learners; appropriate technology in developing countries; technology's long-term influence on thought and values. Prerequisite: EDC&I 480 or permission of instructor.

EDC&I 586 Current Issues for Computers in the Classroom (1, max. 20)
Addresses many of the current topics in computer-related education. Issues and research related to computer uses in curriculum, instruction, and management of instruction.

EDC&I 587 Design and Application of Interactive and Immersive Instructional Systems (3)
Theoretical and empirical questions involved in design of interactive instructional systems using such technologies as virtual reality and CAI. Specific problems inherent in design of complex learning environments: immersion, control, structure, sequence of experiences, navigation, learner guidance. Educational uses of systems. Prerequisite: EDC&I 481 or EDC&I 583, EDC&I 436, or permission of instructor.

EDC&I 588 Seminar: Computers in Education (3)
Provides opportunity for graduate students to analyze, discuss, and design research in areas of computers in education. Includes historical development of research in this area as well as a platform for the development of research proposals and refinement of ongoing research. Prerequisite: EDC&I 434 or EDC&I 436.

EDC&I 589 Current Issues in Educational Communications (1, max. 9)
Discussion of problems and issues of current interest and importance in the field of educational communications. Serves also as a forum for discussion of doctoral research. Designed for master's and doctoral candidates in educational communications. Credit/no-credit only.

EDC&I 590 Seminar in Elementary Education (3)
Exploration of the philosophy, history, purposes, curriculum, methods, and school organization of elementary education. Prerequisite: elementary-school teaching experience, EDC&I 556.

EDC&I 591 Seminar in Curriculum Research (3)
Analysis of past and current empirical, historical, ethnographic research, and philosophical analysis of the curriculum field. Studies considered include research in curriculum development, the curriculum plan, contextual characteristics, and factors related to curriculum participants. Group and individual analyses focus on theory generation and practical applications of research. Prerequisite: EDC&I 559 or permission of instructor.

EDC&I 592 Seminar in Secondary Education (3)
Research and study of secondary education. Primary focus on factors involving change in secondary-school curriculum and organization. Prerequisite: EDC&I 558.

EDC&I 593 Seminar in Curriculum: Theory and Practice (3)
Investigation of curriculum theory and practice. Consideration is given to theoretical writings that address the relationships between various curricular variables. Theoretical positions are related to curricular practices and innovations. Prerequisite: EDC&I 559.

EDC&I 594 Seminar in Curriculum: Issues, Systems, Models (3)
Emphasis on the current approaches to curriculum and curriculum innovation. Attention is given to major educational issues as they affect curricular activity. Prerequisite: EDC&I 559.

EDC&I 595 Seminar in Analysis of Teaching (3)
Investigation of the ways in which classroom teaching has been analyzed from a variety of disciplinary perspectives. Focus on methods, findings, and implications of research on teaching. Prerequisite: teaching experience.

EDC&I 596 Seminar in Strategies of Instruction (3)
Various instructional models applicable to all levels of schooling. Theoretical and philosophical bases for these instructional models are considered.

EDC&I 597 Curriculum Evaluation Seminar (3, max. 6)
Focuses on the evaluators' roles, evaluation theory and models, and selected curricular evaluations. Examples are drawn from the several disciplines commonly offered in the elementary and secondary schools. Students are expected to identify an evaluation problem and to develop an evaluation design that can be implemented as a practical solution to the problem. Prerequisite: EDC&I 559 and permission of instructor.

EDC&I 599 Independent Studies in Education (*)
Independent studies or readings of specialized aspects of education. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

EDC&I 600 Independent Study or Research (*-)
Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

EDC&I 601 Internship ([1-10]-, max. 20)
Prerequisite: permission based on approval of proposal submitted during quarter preceding the internship. Credit/no-credit only.