Access from Adobe

Adobe's Acrobat (PDF) format is being used by many Web sites to display publications. This site includes a utility for translating PDF files to HTML so that they are accessible.

The Adaptive Computer Technology Centre (ACT)

The ACT Web site provides information on adaptive technology and accessible Web design.

Apple Computer, Inc.
The Worldwide Disability Solutions Group
One Infinite Loop, M/S 38-DS
Cupertino, CA 95014
(800) 600-7808 (voice)
(800) 755-0601 (TDD)

The Apple Web site provides information on adaptive technology solutions and shareware for Apple computers.

ADAPT-L Listserv
ADAPT-L focuses on adaptive technology and libraries. Postings are archived. To join, send electronic mail to with no subject but one line of text: "subscribe adapt-l Firstname Lastname".

ADA-LAW Listserv
ADA-LAW is a discussion list for those interested in the Americans with Disabilities Act and other disability-related laws in the United States and other countries. To join, sent electronic mail to LISTSERV@LISTSERV.NODAK.EDU with no subject but one line of text: "subscribe ADA-LAW Firstname Lastname".

Americans with Disabilities Act Document Center

Full-text government documents and legal resources can be found at this non-governmental site maintained by volunteers.

Association for Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD)
107 Commerce Centre Dr.
Suite 204
Huntsville, NC 28078
(704) 947-7779 (Voice)
(704) 948-7779 (Fax)

AHEAD, a professional organization of higher education disability service providers, disseminates information about research, accommodations, and legislation.

Association of Research Libraries
Library Services for Persons with Disabilities. SPEC Kit 176. July/August 1991.

The SPEC Kit includes examples of policy and staff training documents and library brochures and handouts from ARL libraries.

Best Viewed With Any Browser

This site links to resources discussing different browsers' levels of support for various versions of HTML.

Bobby at the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)

Bobby is an HTML validator program used to find compatibility problems that prevent pages from displaying correctly with various Web browser programs.
[NOTE: Bobby is no longer available as a free service or standalone product.]

Cantor, Alan. (1995) "The A-D-A-P-T-A-B-L-E Approach: Planning Accessible Libraries". Information Technology and Disabilities. 2(4). Available through EASI,

Cantor's article gives an overview of things to consider when planning for accessibility as well as practical suggestions to help libraries choose from the wide range of available adaptive devices.

Center for Information Technology Accommodation (CITA)
General Services Administration

CITA's manual, Managing Information Resources for Accessibility, available at their Web site, covers policy issues and practical concerns for information accessibility to accommodate users with disabilities.

Closing The Gap, Inc.
P.O. Box 68
526 Main Street
Henderson, MN 56044
(507) 248-3294 (Voice)
(507) 248-3810 (Fax)

Closing the Gap sponsors an annual conference and publishes an annual resource directory and monthly newsletter on adaptive technology.

DO-IT (Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology)
University of Washington
Box 4842
Seattle, WA 98195-4842
206-685-DOIT (3648) (voice/TTY)
888-972-DOIT (3648) (voice/TTY)
206-221-4171 (fax)
509-328-9331 (voice/TTY) Spokane

DO-IT produces free and low cost educational publications and videos that help librarians and educators learn about issues related to people with disabilities and computer technology. They focus on helping people with disabilities use technology to achieve high levels of independence, productivity, and participation in academic programs and careers. Most of DO-IT's brochures are available at the Web site. You can also preview DO-IT's videos and training materials. DO-IT's site provides guidelines and comprehensive listings of Web resources for accessible Web design, adaptive technology, college and career transition, faculty awareness, and other disability-related issues.

EASI (Equal Access to Software and Information)
c/o American Association for Higher Education
One Dupont Circle
Suite 360
Washington, D.C. 20036-1110

An organization focused on access to technology for people with disabilities and affiliated with the American Association for Higher Education, EASI maintains a Web site that addresses issues related to serving patrons with disabilities, disability etiquette, adaptive technology, legal issues, and accessible software. EASI also produces an electronic journal, Information Technology & Disability, that regularly includes library-related articles. EASI sponsors several listservs. AXSLIB-L addresses the challenges and opportunities of making libraries more accessible for persons with disabilities. To subscribe, send electronic mail to LISTSERV@MAELSTROM.STJOHNS.EDU with no subject but one line of text: "subscribe AXSLIB-L Firstname Lastname". EASI's general list, called EASI, covers adaptive technology and access issues and other disability and computer topics. Many people with disabilities subscribe to the list, so you can hear from users with relevant experience. To join, send electronic mail to LISTSERV@MAELSTROM.STJOHNS.EDU with no subject but one line of text: "subscribe EASI Firstname Lastname". Both lists are archived at the EASI Web site.

Employment Equity Positive Measures Program

The Public Service Commission of Canada sponsors the Employment Equity Positive Measures Program which includes an accessibility test program and other information.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
1801 L Street NW
Washington, DC 20507
(800) 669-4000 (Voice)
(800) 669-6820 (TDD)

The EEOC provides a handbook, regulations, and technical assistance for implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERICEC)
The Council for Exceptional Children
1920 Association Drive
Renton, VA 20191-1589
(703) 264-9449 (Voice)
(703) 264-9449 (TDD)
(800) 328-0272
(703) 620-2521 (FAX)

ERIC is a federally funded, nationwide information network that provides access to education literature. The popular ASKERIC service allows teachers, librarians and others to call or send electronic mail questions. ERIC will respond with article and association resources.
[NOTE: ERICEC was disbanded by the US government on December 19, 2003]

Job Accommodation Network (JAN)
(800)526-7234 United States
(800)526-2262 Canada
ADA Information:
(800)ADA-WORK or (800)232-9675
(304) 293-5407 (FAX)

In the United States, JAN is a service of the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities. In Canada, JAN is a service of the Canadian Council on Rehabilitation and Work. It provides information and consultation about adapting individual classes, labs, or worksites.

Karp, Rashelle S. (Ed.) (1991). Library Services for Disabled Individuals. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991.

This volume gives practical suggestions for library accessibility according to four broad categories of disability: learning disabilities, intellectual disability, visual impairments, and hearing impairments.

The Library Web Manager's Reference Center

This site holds the archives of the Web4Lib listserv and includes links for many Web development resources for librarians, including a section on validating HTML. To join the Web4Lib list, send electronic mail to with no subject but one line of text: "subscribe Web4Lib Firstname Lastname".
[NOTE: The Web4Lib listserv no longer exists.]

The National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM)

Sponsored by WGBH radio in Boston, NCAM promotes the use of a Web Access symbol and provides model examples of accessible pages. Of special interest are their projects on captioning and audio description on the Web.

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (formerly National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities - NICHY)

A project of the Academy for Educational Development (AED), operated in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, NICHCY was the national information and referral center that provides information on disabilities and disability-related issues for families, educators, and other professionals related to children and youth. NICHCY's wide variety of publications are available at its Web site.
[NOTE: NICHY has ceased being funded. will remain available until September 2014. The new Center for Parent Information and Resources will be the new home of the NICHY resources at]

National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS)
Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20542
(202) 707-9275 or (202) 707-5100 (voice)
(202) 707-0712 (FAX)
(202) 707-0744 (TDD)

NLS administers a free library program of Braille and recorded materials circulated to eligible borrowers through a nationwide network of cooperating libraries. A list of the cooperating libraries is located at

Roads to Learning
The Public Libraries' Learning
Disabilities Initiative
American Library Association
50 E. Huron St.
Chicago, IL 60611-2795

Roads to Learning sponsors a listserv and disseminates information on library services for people with learning disabilities. To subscribe to the Roads to Learning listserv, send electronic mail to with no subject but one line of text: "subscribe PLLD-L FirstName LastName".
[NOTE: The Roads to Learning listserv no longer exists as the initiative has ended.]

Starling Access Services

Starling provides an accessible Web page design manual at their site.

Tech Act Programs
The 1988 Technology-related Assistance Act and its 1993 amendments provide federal funding to help states establish programs to promote the provision of technology-related assistance for people with disabilities. The Tech Act programs are a resource to individuals and organizations interested in learning about and acquiring adaptive technology. Contact RESNA at (703) 524-6686 (voice), (703) 524-6639 (TDD), or for more information about the Tech Act program in your state.

Trace Research & Development Center
University of Wisconsin-Madison
2107 Engineering Centers Bldg.
1550 Engineering Dr.
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 262-6966 (Voice)
(608) 263-5408 (TTY)
(608) 262-8848 (Fax)

The Trace Center is an interdisciplinary research, development and resource center on technology and disability located at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The mission of the Center is "to advance the ability of people with disabilities to achieve their life objectives through the use of communication, computer and information technologies." The site maintains excellent resources on adaptive and assistive technology and universal design.

U.S. Department of Justice Americans with Disabilities Act Home Page
1-800-514-0301 (voice)
1-800-514-0383 (TDD)

Call to obtain answers to general and technical questions about the ADA and to order technical assistance materials. The Department of Justice maintains a separate page of ADA Web resources at


WebABLE maintains a searchable directory for disability-related Internet resources. At the home page, choose SEARCH WebABLE.
[NOTE: This resource no longer exists.]

The World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)

The W3C was founded in 1994 to develop common standards for the evolution of the World Wide Web. Their statement on accessibility reads in part: "All the protocols and languages we issue as Recommendations should meet or exceed established accessibility goals. In addition, we will actively encourage the development of Web software and content that is accessible to people with most disabilities."