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Instructor Class Description

Time Schedule:

Ian S Mc Callum
ESS 437
Seattle Campus


Symmetry of crystals and crystal structures. Rules of crystal chemistry. Microscopic, diffraction, and spectroscopic techniques of mineral characterization. Transformation processes in minerals: order-disorder, phase transition, and exsolution. Crystal chemistry and phase relations. Reactions on mineral surfaces. Physical properties, deformation, and creep. Prerequisite: CHEM 142; ESS 212; ESS 312.

Class description

ESS 437/537 Mineralogy

Credits: 5 [Lectures: M W 12:30 pm-1:45 pm; Lab: M W 2:30 – 4:20 pm] Instructor: I. S. McCallum Location: Room 127 Johnson Hall

As a consequence of the restructuring of the courses required for the major in ESS, required courses in mineralogy have been reduced to 5 weeks in ESS 212 (Earth Materials). This does not provide an adequate preparation for students interested in more advanced study in petrology and geochemistry. In ESS 437/537 we attempt to provide a follow-up course that looks at minerals in more detail. A knowledge of minerals is an essential tool for all branches of geology since the behavior of natural materials is a direct consequence of the physical and chemical properties of minerals. This class is designed to provide a comprehensive view of the mineral sciences.

Required books: Putnis, Andrew: Introduction to minerals sciences. Cambridge University Press.

Nesse, William D. Introduction to Optical Mineralogy (2004) Third edition. Oxford University Press. If you don’t already have Nesse’s “Introduction to Mineralogy” textbook, you should get this one.

OR Nesse, William D; Introduction to Mineralogy. Oxford University Press. (Most of you will have this book since it is the same book as used in ESS 212. It provides an adequate summary of the principles of optical mineralogy in Chapter 7 and the optical properties of minerals is covered in Chapters 12 through 20). Either of the Nesse books is required for all lab sections. This book is quite expensive ($108 new) but there are abundant used copies available on for as low as $80 so, if you don’t have a copy, I recommend that you purchase the book through Amazon.

Recommended book: Bloss, F.Donald: Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry. This book is out of print but has been reprinted in paperback by the Mineralogical Society of America. As a member of MSA I get a 25% discount so I can order several copies from MSA. You can buy a copy from me at the discounted price of $25 (includes shipping charges). If anyone would like a copy of Bloss, let me know and I will place a rush order and will let you know when the books arrive.

Topics to be covered in lectures:

• Review of Morphological Crystallography (an expanded discussion of material covered in ESS 212): Symmetry, crystal systems, crystal classes, axes, Miller Indices, crystal projections, crystal forms.

• More advanced aspects of crystallography: Translational symmetry, lattices (2D and 3D-Bravais lattices), screw axes, glide planes, space groups, systematics of crystal structures, twinning, phase transformations, polymorphism, crystal intergrowths.

• Crystal chemistry: Material covered will build on concepts learned in ESS 312.

• X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), spectroscopy: Theory of x-ray crystallography, reciprocal lattices, Ewald sphere, single crystal and powder x-ray diffraction. Determination of cell dimensions using powder data. Interpretation of oriented intergrowths using single crystal precession photographs. Principles of transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and the uses of TEM studies in mineralogy. If time permits we will discuss some of the spectroscopic techniques that are increasingly used in mineralogy and petrology, e.g., Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Mossbauer spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, NMR, ESR, MicroXanes.

• Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA): If there is sufficient time we will cover this topic in lectures and in the laboratory. Theory of x-ray generation, use of diffracting crystal in wave length dispersive analysis, energy dispersive analysis, Back Scattered Electron Imaging and Secondary Electron Imaging, correction procedures for quantitative analysis

• Mineralogy, crystallography, crystal chemistry of the major rock forming minerals

This part of the course (second half) will emphasize the major rock-forming minerals: olivine group, pyroxene group, feldspar group, amphibole group, mica group, oxide group, and sulfides. For each mineral group we will discuss crystal structures, crystal chemistry, compositional variations, order-disorder, thermodynamic properties, phase equilibria, thermobarometry, natural occurrence. Time permitting, we will discuss other important, but less common, mineral groups.

Lab Topics:

• Optical Mineralogy: The first 5-6 weeks (approximately) of the laboratory will be devoted to optical mineralogy in which we will cover the basics of mineral identification with the polarizing microscope using thin sections and polished thin sections. The physics of light optics and the interaction of light with crystalline material are reviewed to the extent necessary for an understanding of polarized-light techniques. The emphasis is on hands-on use of the microscope. We will learn how to measure optical properties and identify the rock-forming minerals including olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas, feldspars, feldspathoids, quartz, carbonates, common sulfides, common oxides, plus other important rock-forming minerals such as garnet, epidote, zircon, titanite, apatite, chlorite, talc, rutile, kyanite, sillimanite, andalusite. In the early part of the quarter, some of the lab time will be devoted to lectures primarily on optical mineralogy and the remaining time to hands-on work with the petrographic microscope. Other forms of microscopy will be discussed and demonstrated (time permitting). I will try to schedule demonstrations of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (if the TEM lab in Astronomy is not too busy with Stardust samples)

• Electron probe microanalysis: We will devote one lab section for a demonstration of the use the electron microprobe for the quantitative analysis of minerals and glass and how to obtain high magnification back scattered electron (BSE) images. This lab will be done with the assistance of Scott Kuehner.

• X-ray diffraction: (a) Powder diffraction. We will devote one lab period to analyse and interpret x-ray powder data. It may be possible to arrange a session in the diffractometry lab in the Department of Material Sciences. Each student will be provided with a sample of a single mineral to study. We will learn how to index powder patterns and compute cell dimensions.

(b) Single crystal diffraction. We will examine and measure precession photographs of single crystals of common minerals. We will learn how to index precession photographs and how to use these photographs to determine cell dimensions and the crystallographic nature of oriented intergrowths (exsolution).

• You should bring Nesse to the lab. You will also need a lab notebook.

Grade: Grades in the class will be based on homework (~20%), lab exercises (~20%), take home lecture final (~30%), lab final (~25%) and class participation (~5%).

Student learning goals

Understanding the principles of crystallography

Understanding the principles of bonding and crystal structures

Understanding physical and chemical properties of the rock-forming minerals.

Understanding the effects of extreme P and T on mineral stabilities

Understanding the basic thermodynamic properties of minerals

Understanding how and where minerals occur in nature.

General method of instruction

Mostly lectures + classroom discussion Labs: hands-on microscope work

Recommended preparation

ESS 212 (Earth Materials), ESS 312 (Geochemistry) or equivalents Chemistry 142, 152 or equivalents Physics 121, 122 or equivalents

Class assignments and grading

Three (possibly four) home problems Weekly lab exercise

Grades in the class will be based on homework (~20%), lab exercises (~20%), take home lecture final (~30%), lab final (~25%) and class participation (~5%).

The information above is intended to be helpful in choosing courses. Because the instructor may further develop his/her plans for this course, its characteristics are subject to change without notice. In most cases, the official course syllabus will be distributed on the first day of class.
Last Update by Ian S Mc Callum
Date: 09/08/2010