Thomas A Horbett
CHEM E 490
Combined application of the principles of physical chemistry, biochemistry, materials engineering, mass transfer, and fluid mechanics to biomedical problems. Case studies include considerations of the selection of materials, the design and the operation of instruments, components of, or entire, artificial organs (heart, kidney, lung) and artificial structural elements (bone, teeth, skin), all for use in contact with body fluids. Offered: jointly with BIOEN 490; A.
This course will provide an overview of the field of biomaterials. The student will learn the history and design principles behind the classes of biomaterials used today in medical devices used as implants in the body or in contact with bodily fluids. Ultimately, the student will obtain the tools necessary to design, analyze, and characterize biomaterials for new applications. The course focuses on the materials in biomedical applications. The major classes of materials along with their properties, characterization, biological responses, specific clinical applications are presented. Articles from the current literature are used to highlight ongoing research and development efforts to improve biomaterials and devices. Near the beginning of the course, students make presentations of on biomaterials used in a specific clinically used device as way to become familiar with the wide variety and great impact of biomaterials and devices used in humans. Later in the course, the students present an analysis of failure mechanisms of the device they described earlier, especially those related to the biomaterials used. In the term paper, the students propose a new biomaterial to be used in the device to overcome one or more of the failure mechanisms of the current version of the device.
Topics Covered: History; relevance and impact; Materials in selected clinical devices (presentations by students in class); Metallic biomaterials: chemical compositions, corrosion/fretting, mechanical properties, osteoinductivity, bone cements; Bioceramics and bioglasses and carbons; natural biomaterials; definitions and terminology; Polymeric biomaterials, chemistry and properties, including polyurethanes and plasma deposited polymers; biomaterials for tissue engineering; biological reactions to implants: blood clotting; foreign body reaction; Failure of devices (presentations by students in class); Surface analysis of biomaterials; Biomaterials in drug delivery; Stents, blood compatibility testing, heparinized surfaces; protein adsorption, foreign body reaction; toxicological testing; device related infection. Biological correlations.
Student learning goals
1. Types of materials used in implanted devices
2. Performance of materials as part of implanted devices in humans
3. Design of material, the rationale for their choice in each type of device
4. Biocompatibility of materials, the reactions of the body to the material and the reaction of the material to the body
5. Failure mechanisms of current biomaterials
6. Design of improved biomaterials, including testing for improved performance
General method of instruction
Lectures by instructor and guest lecturers; two short presentations by students near start and end of the course; term paper
Students with background in engineering and some biology and chemistry are the best prepared, but no prerequisites exist as almost all of this background is covered in the text book readings
Class assignments and grading
Class presentation: Approximately 5-8min per student on materials used in an existing device, and 5-8 min per student on failure mechanisms, depending on class size. In 2010 first presentation will be near the start of the course and the second will be near the middle of the course Term paper: design an improved biomaterial to overcome one or more known failure mechanisms of an existing biomaterial in a given device. Reading: usually from the text book but current literature articles may sometimes be assigned, with questions framed by the instructor to answer, weekly.
Reading, presentations, mid term exam, and term paper, with approximately equal weighting.