How might information technologies present barriers to students and employees with disabilities?
A disability is defined as a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, such as walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, working, caring for oneself, and performing manual tasks. Examples of disabilities include AIDS, cancer, Cerebral Palsy, Diabetes, Epilepsy, head injuries, hearing impairments, learning disabilities, loss of limbs, Muscular Dystrophy, psychiatric disorders, speech impairments, spinal cord injuries, and blindness.
Information technology (IT) includes computer hardware and software, websites, multimedia presentations, telecommunications products such as telephones, information kiosks and transaction machines, office equipment such as copiers and fax machines, and any other technology that facilitates the creation, conversion, or duplication of data or information. A more formal definition is provided in the AccessIT Knowledge Base article What is electronic and information technology?.
Most individuals with disabilities are able to use IT. However, they are dependent on developers of IT products to design their products to support the needs of the broadest possible array of users. If IT products are designed solely for the "average user," they can be difficult or impossible for individuals with specific disabilities to effectively use. Described below are a few access challenges regularly faced by students and employees with disabilities.
Some individuals with disabilities cannot operate a standard keyboard and/or mouse. Adaptive or assistive technology, comprising a wide range of devices, allows individuals with mobility impairments to access computers. It includes mini-, expanded, and other alternative keyboards; speech input systems; and alternatives to a standard mouse. These devices are available for all commonly used computers. Some individuals with visual impairments require that images be enlarged, and some cannot see the computer screen at all. Software is readily available for enlarging screen images; in addition, speech output systems are available for reading text presented on the screen, but these systems cannot provide access to content presented only in a graphical form.
Individuals who are blind and using speech output systems cannot access web content that is presented only in a graphical form and can have difficulty accessing content presented in tables and other forms, unless the content is designed with access in mind. People who are color-blind cannot discriminate between color-coded options. Individuals who are deaf cannot access content presented via audio output unless captions or transcriptions are provided.
People who are deaf or hard of hearing and individuals with visual impairments, mobility impairments, and speech impairments experience difficulty when trying to operate standard telephones. The AccessIT Knowledge Base article What access challenges do people with disabilities face when using a telephone? describes each of the unique challenges people with these disabilities face when using telecommunication devices.
Photocopy and Fax Machines
Photocopy and fax machines cannot be accessed by individuals who use wheelchairs if the controls are not easy to reach and the systems are not at an accessible height. Those who have low vision cannot access instructions and labels available only in small print. Those who are blind cannot access instructions presented only in visual form.
Potential access barriers for people with disabilities should be considered when products are developed. For information on how to design accessible electronic and information technology, consult the AccessIT Knowledge Base article What is accessible electronic and information technology?