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Explore, Prepare, Apply

Making the decision to pursue health science education is a deeply personal one. It involves assessing your strengths, interests, and values. You may have a strong desire to serve humanity, a hope for a well-paying career, or a passion for science or any combination of characteristics that are unique to you. Students often feel pressure from family or peers to go into a health career, or may be influenced by media.

Each student owns his or her process for decision making about a future in the health world. It must be self-reflective and experiential, and not merely one long checklist of activities, courses, and test scores to take care of.

The admission process

All the undergraduate degree programs have competitive admission, and most admit students only once per year. Some of the programs have extremely competitive admission. 

All except Speech and Hearing Sciences allow transfer students to apply directly to the program; that is, they don't require that you attend the UW before applying to the program. The application deadlines for these programs are generally earlier than the February 15 UW transfer student deadline. You must submit applications for admission to the program and to the University. If you are denied admission by the program but are admitted to the University, you will be offered admission as a premajor. The UW requires students to declare a major by the time they complete 105 credits, and most of these programs admit students only once per year. Because of this, if you are admitted to the UW but are denied admission to your first choice of major, you will almost certainly have to choose an alternate major. You are allowed to apply to the program again, but in the meantime you will be required to make progress toward an alternate major.

Familiarize yourself with the admission requirements and the application procedures of the major(s) in which you are interested, by following the links above. To determine which courses at your community college are equivalent to the prerequisites of the majors you're considering, check the UW Equivalency Guide for Washington Community and Technical Colleges.

How do I decide which program to pursue?

If you think you are interested in a career in the health sciences, but are not sure of what kind of career, there are a number of factors to consider.

Are you interested in direct patient care?

Nurses are the health-care professionals who probably have the highest degree of direct patient contact. (Nurses — actually all health professionals — can also enter fields like administration and education, in which there may be little or no patient contact.) Physical therapists, occupational therapists, prosthetists, physician assistants, medical doctors, and dentists also have a lot of patient contact. Most medical technologists work in hospital laboratories and have little patient contact. Environmental health specialists are seldom involved in the delivery of health care, and public health specialists usually work in more administrative positions.

Do you enjoy challenging math and science courses, and perform well in them?

Medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy require two or three years of difficult college coursework, including calculus, a year of general chemistry, and a year of organic chemistry. Medicine and dentistry also require biochemistry, making a total of three college years of chemistry. Medical technology and environmental health require many of the same courses. UW's physical therapy program will accept a shorter chemistry sequence, but most pre-PT students complete the longer chemistry sequence because they plan to apply to more than one PT program, and the longer chemistry sequence is commonly required by the PT programs at other colleges. And you must achieve high grades to be competitive for admission to most of these programs, particularly medicine, pharmacy, and physical therapy.

How much time are you willing to invest in preparing for a health career?

Bachelor-degree programs take at least four years to complete. If you don't start the program prerequisites in your freshman year and complete them in your sophomore year, a program might take five or six years to complete. The master's programs generally take two years to complete, after you have completed a bachelor's degree. Pharmacy is a six-year program: two years of science prerequisites (including two years of chemistry), and four years of professional coursework. Dental school is four years, generally after you have completed a bachelor's degree, and if you are interested in a dental specialty you might be required to complete several years of additional training. Medical school is also four years, followed by a residency of anywhere from two years to ten or more years, depending on your specialty.

If you are looking for a health profession with a shorter training program, consider the one- and two-year programs offered by community colleges.

Have you had any experience delivering health care, or working in a health-care setting?

One of the best ways to decide where you might fit into the health-care field is to gain some experience working in a health-care setting, either as a volunteer or as a paid employee. Volunteer experience is readily available; most large hospitals have a volunteer coordinator. You can also volunteer at many clinics and nursing homes. Some students make arrangements to be an observer at a private practice. Other related volunteer experiences can also help you make decisions about your future, such as work in classrooms, homeless shelters, consumer advocacy groups, etc.

Have you considered other alternatives in health care?

There are many other health professions in addition to the ones offered by the UW. A librarian can help you locate books about health careers, or look in the self-help section of a bookstore.

Community colleges offer one- and two-year training programs in a variety of health fields. Some of these have excellent job opportunities. UW Professional & Continuing Education offers evening certificate programs in gerontology and health information administration.

What if the health sciences aren't right for you?

You've spent one or two quarters or one or two years taking prerequisites for your health care program, you've been volunteering in a health care facility, and somehow it doesn't feel like a good fit for you. Maybe your grades aren’t as strong as you know they need to be. Maybe you find that the science isn’t that interesting to you. Or maybe you've found that you really don't like being around sick people. Now what?

First of all, don't get down on yourself. You are fortunate to realize that health care isn't where you should be before you actually invest four to eight years of preparation. We all know people who have been in careers they've hated but don'’t feel they can give them up because they invested so much time and money preparing for that "dream career." Second, know that you have unique strengths and gifts to share and there are many ways to do that. If you went toward health care because you desire to serve people, consider how else you might meet that goal — teaching, counseling, helping the under-served, creating and participating in mentoring and leadership programs —and many more. Your strength and commitment doesn’t change, just your route.

If you are in the position of searching out a new major, start with your strengths. What are you good at, what interests you? The best major is the one that you enjoy, do well in, and that holds your interest. Health care programs lead directly to specific careers but most majors don't. Remember that your health care, community service, and leadership skills are not just highly valued for health care. They will be equally valued in all parts of the work world. You have a range of transferable skills that you can use in many ways, in many majors, and in many careers.

Finally, after reflecting on some of these things, talk to an adviser or a career counselor to plot out your next steps. Remember, in the general population people change careers at least four times in their lives. Consider this your first career change — not the end of the world.

Volunteering: getting connected

One of the best ways to learn more about a profession or career is to "try it on for size." Volunteering allows you to observe people who are health care providers and to connect with health care clients. Many health care programs require their applicants to document volunteer or paid experience in health care for admission. Community service and teaching or tutoring are valuable ways to learn more about leadership and diversity, and clarify personal values, assumptions, and responsibilities.

Step 1: Think about what you want to do

  • Is there a particular issue, topic, population you want to be involved with?
  • What type of environment would you prefer? Most of your volunteer work will be done locally, but think about the opportunity to volunteer on a global scale.
  • How much time do you have to volunteer?
  • How will you get to your volunteer site?
  • How could this experience contribute to what you're learning in the classroom and to your personal and career goals?
  • Are you considering an international volunteering experience? If so, be sure to review the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC) Guidelines for Premedical and Medical Students Providing Patient Care During Clinical Experiences Abroad

Step 2: Find the facility that works best for you

There are many excellent facilities in the Seattle Metro area and you should explore as many options as possible before making a decision. Health care facilities might include a medical center or large hospital, community clinic, family planning center, hospice, or long-term care facility. Community service sites are everywhere. Look at food banks, shelters, after-school programs, support groups for people with illnesses (like the Lifelong AIDS Alliance or The American Cancer Society) or disabilities. Schools, summer camps, recreation programs, and youth groups can give you teaching and leadership experience.

The University of Washington's Carlson Leadership and Public Service Center can connect you to internships, service learning, tutoring, and volunteer opportunities.

The Pipeline Project provides tutoring and mentoring to elementary, middle and high school students in our area. Jumpstart, an early childhood education group, works with UW students to provide mentors for low-income preschool children in order to build their language skills.

The King County portal of links to health services provided by King County government has listings of area hospitals and clinics. The Yellow Pages have quite a few listings under Clinics, Hospitals, and Nursing Care. United Way of King County has an extensive list of volunteer opportunities.

Step 3: Find out what they expect from you

Contact the facility or organization you're interested in. Many places have web sites that will tell you how to contact them and what they are looking for. If you don't have that information, call the facility and ask to be connected to the volunteer coordinator. Before you make a commitment you should visit the facility and talk to the coordinator about expectations for volunteers. A well-prepared volunteer applicant will present a printed goal statement and resume of previous work and volunteer experience and dress and act professionally.

Step 4: Understand the limitations of volunteering

  • Most health care facilities start volunteers out doing things like pushing patients in wheelchairs to X-Ray or the lab, delivering flowers, taking specimens to the lab, helping patients with meals, or doing routine office work. Ask what jobs are available.
  • If you have a choice, ask for a job that allows you to observe the interaction of health care professionals with patients rather than an office assignment where you will have little patient contact.
  • You should never be asked to do something that requires special training; nor should you ever assume that you are able do more than you've been asked to do.
  • Often you'll find that you'll be allowed to do and see more after you've been at the site for a few months and demonstrated that you are trustworthy and reliable.

Step 5: Make it matter

At its best, volunteering is an opportunity for you to explore and evaluate a career area as well as experience the world in a new way. You can seek out volunteer sites that will connect you to people and situations that may be new to you. Volunteering is a way to develop your innate compassion and caring for others.

There are several ways to build on your volunteer experience.

  • Create a portfolio to document your learning. Keep examples of the volunteer work you do, such as a log of your hours and a description of what you did, reports or projects you completed, photos of students you've tutored.
  • Keep a journal where you record your experiences and insights. This helps you think critically about what you're observing and experiencing.  

Preparation: More than just grades

Preparing to attend health care programs goes well beyond taking the “right” classes and doing well on the entry exams. Certainly, an excellent applicant will have a strong overall grade point average in the pre-requisite coursework, as well as competitive test scores. But beyond these measures, a strong applicant will have a well-rounded set of interests; have a passion for the sciences and field of medicine; have a healthy sense of self; quality volunteer experience (remember quantity does not always equal quality), strong letters of recommendation and a compelling personal statement. As you prepare for this journey we expect that you are doing a lot of reading, self-reflection, and self-assessment to determine if health care is the correct path for you.

As you go into the preparation process, for both two-year and four-year programs, you may find it helpful to keep a journal of your experiences and record how you feel about them. What are you learning and how will you use it? Are you finding fulfillment in your courses and activities or are you feeling drained and overwhelmed? It's important to look at your feelings as you go through the process. Why? Because when you do apply to programs they will want you to have the ability to analyze and reflect on your experiences. They want to be sure you are committed to health care and they will want to know what sparks that commitment. And you want to be as sure as you can that you’re making a good choice.

Find out what it takes to be a strong medical school candidate. Listen to these focus group sessions presented by Dr. Carol Teitz, Associate Dean of Admissions of the UW School of Medicine.

Two year plan preparing for an undergraduate (Bachelor degree) health professional program

Two years before 

  • View our pre-health information presentations.
  • Start getting health care related experience.
  • Sign up for health care related email lists to receive important updates and information.
  • Meet with a pre-health adviser to plan your curriculum.
  • Read the web pages for the program(s) that interest you. Learn about their mission, values, and learning goals.
  • Look for opportunities to get involved in community service on or off campus.
  • Get to know your professors.
    This will help you to succeed academically and enrich your undergraduate education. Take a balanced courseload. You should start your science prerequisites, take general education coursework and take classes to help you to explore majors.It can feel intimidating to approach your faculty, which is another reason to give it a try! Visit during office hours and ask questions about the course you are taking. Look at your professor's webpage and ask about her or his background and research area. Ask for your professor's advice and maintain your relationship after your course ends.
  • Take a balanced courseload. You should start your science prerequisites, take general education coursework and take classes that help provide context to your interests in health care (social sciences, ethnic and cultural studies, communication, writing).
  • Explore programs at other schools. Since many programs are highly competitive, it is helpful to apply widely. If there are prerequisites that you need for other schools, begin to plan on how to fit them into your curriculum. 

One year before

  • Pay close attention to the program's website. Valuable application information and hints will be included there.
  • Attend any application workshop, information session, or open house that is offered.
  • Ask for letter(s) of recommendation early. Give your recommender a brief goal statement and resume.
  • Begin to think about back-up majors that you would enjoy studying if you are not a successful applicant the first time you apply.  

Four year plan preparing for a graduate health professional program

Four years before 

  • View our pre-health information presentations.
  • Start getting health care related experience.
  • Sign up for health care related email lists to receive important updates and information.
  • Start exploring majors that are of interest to you.
    Health care graduate programs do not give preference to any majors. You can be equally successful choosing a science or non-science major and you should choose a major that you will do well in and enjoy.
  • Attend a student organization meeting.
    Actively participating in student groups can be an invaluable experience. The student groups not only offer services that prehealth students find helpful, such as hosting health related panels, informational interviews and group volunteering events, but they also provide a community of students who have similar interests and goals. By taking on an active role, students can also develop their leadership skills. To browse a directory of groups, visit the Registered Student Organization's website.
  • Look for opportunities to get involved in community service on- or off-campus.
  • Get to know your professors.
    Getting to know your professors will help you to succeed academically and enrich your undergraduate education. In addition, letters of recommendation from both science and nonscience faculty play an important role in your application to graduate programs. It can feel intimidating to approach your faculty, which is another reason to give it a try! Visit during office hours and ask questions about the course you are taking. Look at your professor's webpage and ask about her or his background and research area. Ask for your professor's advice and maintain your relationship after your course ends.
  • Take a balanced courseload.
    You should start your science prerequisites, take general education coursework and take classes that help provide context to your interests in health care (social sciences, ethnic and cultural studies, communication, writing,). Also take courses that will help you to explore possible majors.

Three years before 

  • Continue to get health care experience.
    If you have been at the same place for a long period of time, consider asking to advance your responsibilities. If you are no longer learning at your health care site, don't give up! Be proactive about finding an alternative opportunity to continue your learning.
  • Continue your science prerequisites and complete remaining prerequisites for your major.
  • Choose your major and declare if you are ready. Remember! Health care programs do not give preference to any major.
  • Continue to get to know your professors.
  • Participate in undergraduate research.
    Most health care programs do not require that you have research experience; however, it can deepen your understanding of the health sciences. If you are interested in undergraduate research, the Undergraduate Research Program can help you to get started. You can also talk to departmental advisers and faculty about opportunities.

Two years before 

  • Attend application information sessions about writing your personal statement, interviewing, and completing the application.
  • Attend presentations and fairs that will introduce you to specific schools.
  • Research standardized test preparation options (ie: MCAT, DAT, PCAT, OAT or GRE). Organize your class notes to help you to study.
  • Research schools. Take the time to consider what is important to you in a health program. Do research in books and online to find strong matches. You should contact the Admissions Offices of the schools with any questions that are not answered on their websites. Pay close attention to school’s' prerequisites, residency requirements and special programs and deadlines.
  • Procure letters of recommendation. The letter requirements of the programs vary, but many programs will require three faculty letters of recommendation. Be sure to give your letter writer a brief goal statement and a resume.
  • Prepare for, register for and take the appropriate standardized test. Click on the test you need for more information:
    • Medical School (Allopathic , Osteopathic, Naturopathic) — MCAT
    • Dental School — DAT
    • Pharmacy School (not all pharmacy schools require the PCAT) — PCAT
    • Optometry School — OAT
    • Occupational Therapy, Physical Therapy or Veterinary School — GRE
  • Order official transcripts from all schools attended for your use.
  • Submit your primary application. You should submit your application early as many schools use a rolling admissions process.
  • Submit secondary applications, if applicable.
  • Prepare for interviews, if applicable. This will include participating in a mock interview at the Career Center.

One year before 

  • Interview with interested programs, if applicable. Send thank you notes after any interview!
  • Update schools with important information, including:
    • Updated transcripts
    • New and substantial health care experience
    • Substantive research experience
  • Continue to develop yourself as a strong applicant.
    Assess your strengths and weaknesses as an applicant and work to improve any weak areas. This could include taking additional coursework in the sciences or non-sciences, developing relationships with faculty, participating in research, or getting quality health care experience.
  • Plan for a gap year.
    Many qualified applicants are not admitted to a health program during their first application. It is important that you continually assess yourself as an applicant and consider alternative plans. Use this additional year to continue to explore your motivation, and address any weaknesses in your application. If you must reapply, programs will be comparing your applications to see that you have been thoughtful and proactive with your time. There is no ‘right’ way to spend a gap year; it will depend on your motivations and interests.

How to apply

Applying to health care programs is generally a year-long process that will require you to do many tasks simultaneously. While you are preparing to take the appropriate entry exams, you will also need to write your personal statement, research schools and obtain letters of recommendation. By the time you start contacting programs, you should have narrowed your choice to at least ten schools, taken the entry exam, obtained all recommendation letters, and written the final copy of your personal statement.

Writing the personal statement

You have taken the prerequisite courses, volunteered and done community service. Writers for your letters of recommendation are identified, and they have agreed to give you glowing reviews. Now comes the "hard" part; writing the personal statement. For many people crafting an effective personal statement is difficult for two reasons; you have to write about yourself, and there are generally no definite guidelines for its structure.

The instructions for the personal statement vary depending upon the profession and the intended school. These instructions should definitely be followed carefully, but they are not a specific set of "do's and don'ts" on what to include in the statement. Its content is up to you. The personal statement is your first opportunity to showcase yourself, using your own words, to the selection committee, and as such you need to devote a significant amount of time to its production. Here are some general suggestions that can make writing the personal statement easier.

  • Give yourself plenty of time! You should plan on writing several drafts before attaining perfection, and assuming you are applying to several different programs, you will probably want several different versions, each tailored to a specific program.
  • Make sure that the final product is in your "voice." While you will want many people to read the drafts, and make suggestions, if the end result is not written in your style, then it is not giving the readers an accurate view as you. While selection committees will expect a well-written essay, they do not expect "Shakespeare."
  • As mentioned previously, have several people read your versions. Ask family members, relatives, friends; the people who know you well. They can help ensure that the statement is accurate in its description of you, both as a person, and a potential health care professional. But, unless you know someone who is an expert in the rules of grammar and style, you also need to have it proofread by such a person. There are some writing centers on campus that will read personal statements; when all else fails, pay to have a professional proofread it for you.
  • Make sure that you are giving the reader a more in-depth view of your experiences. Don't just list everything that you have done in preparing for your chosen field; explain how your volunteer experience has altered or enhanced your view of the profession; how community service has given you new insights into people or circumstances. Focus on a few important examples. You will have the chance to list other activities and accomplishments elsewhere in the application.
  • While you do not want to "oversell" yourself, do not be reluctant to talk about significant accomplishments, and why you feel you are well-suited to a career in your chosen profession. The personal statement needs to make you stand out as an applicant; after reading it the selection committee should have a clear sense of your motivation towards your chosen health care, and feel enthusiastic about you as a candidate.

If your personal statement is going to be typed or pasted into an on-line application service, you will need to proofread it carefully before submitting it to make sure that it contains no grammatical, spelling, or formatting errors. Compare it to your stored version to make sure it is complete and error free.

Letters of recommendation

Letters of recommendation are almost always required when applying to health care majors and professional programs. Like all other components of a good application package, getting letters of recommendation requires purposeful planning. Below are some suggestions for making this important component of your application a success.

  • Learn the specific requirements for letters of recommendation for each program to which you will be applying. While almost every program wants them, the number and type of letter(s) requested vary considerably from program to program. Some programs want four letters, others only take two. One application might require two academic-based letters, and one from a professional in your chosen area of study; another might two academic, one from a professional in your chosen field, and one from an employer. You get the idea. So, find out early both the quantity and types of letters required by your prospective program(s).
  • For the academic letters of recommendation, find out who can write a letter. Some schools will accept letters from graduate teaching assistants (TAs), others will only take letters from faculty members. If a program will accept a letter from either TAs or faculty, then you have a decision to make. While I would generally recommend that applicants get letters from faculty whenever possible, a good letter from a teaching assistant who knows you well, and can write meaningfully about you, is better than one from a faculty member who does not know you well, and their evaluation of your academic potential is restricted to "...the student attended my lectures, did well on exams, and earned a 3.2 for the class." Remember, find a writer who can really write about you as a student and a person; someone who can write about the qualities you possess that are going to be valued in a health care program.
  • Identify potential letter writers early, and ask them if they will be willing to write a letter, even if the application process is still two years away. Try to schedule an appointment with a prospective writer, and treat that meeting like a job interview, which may mean wearing appropriate clothes. Bring in a cover letter discussing why you have chosen a particular health-care field; also bring along an updated resume. Try to give the writer as much information about you as possible. Remember, start identifying potential letter writers early; most professors are unwilling to write “last minute” letters, or if they do write one, it is likely to be not the stellar letter you need.

Application tips

  • For for each school that interests you, create a folder containing its list of pre-requisite courses, as well as application deadlines and requirements.
  • Register for the NY Times online, and other free internet news resources. Read up on articles related to health care issues.
  • Read the New York Times Tuesday Science Supplement. There is almost always at least one article that is health related.
  • Do research on the schools you wish to attend. Know their concentrations, strengths, weak spots, etc. Be able to demonstrate why a particular school is a good fit for your plans.
  • For non-traditional (older) students: check out
  • Listen to NPR at least once a week.
  • Push your comfort level by familiarizing yourself with people not like you.
  • Begin a hobby. Classes from the Experimental College can be helpful with this. This is a good way to reduce stress.
  • Don't automatically believe everything you hear or read — check it out with an adviser.
  • Present yourself professionally when you are doing volunteer work.
  • Give your personal statement and resume to people you ask for letters of recommendation.
  • Keep a journal of your health care experiences.
  • Keep your sense of humor. Laughter helps keep you healthy.
  • Maintain a journal of your activites so you have something to refresh your memory when it comes time to write your personal statement.  

If you are not yet a UW student

Health programs are available at the UW at the undergraduate and the graduate level. If you are interested in dentistry, health administration, medicine, optometry, pharmacy, public health or veterinary medicine, then you will complete a major in something else and then apply to these programs. We don't offer every graduate program at UW, but students can take their prerequisites and prepare to apply to these programs while completing their undergraduate degree at the University of Washington.

If your career destination requires a graduate degree, a diversity of academic paths can take you there. While many pre-health students major in biology, biochemistry, or microbiology, professional schools seek well-rounded applicants who excel in the humanities and social sciences as well. Why? Because the practice of health care is an art as well as a science, calling on a clinician's ability to work sensitively with people and understand them emotionally and socially as well as physically. You'll find future health care providers majoring in everything from art history to psychology to comparative literature. Learn more and explore your options by reading through the other pages available on this website.

What are my chances of getting into my program if I come to the UW?

Many prospective students are curious about what percentages of applicants are admitted to health graduate programs. It is important to know that these numbers generally cannot be compared across undergraduate institutions. This is because many schools have a Pre-Health Committee and these schools often only count the applicants who apply through this committee in their acceptance percentages.

At the University of Washington, we do not use the committee process and allow any student to self-identify as being "prehealth." This means that all students can apply to health graduate programs, regardless of whether they use our services. Every year, UW undergraduate students apply to and are accepted at top schools nationwide across various health care fields. It is up to the student to take advantage of the many opportunities available to help her or him to become the best applicant she or he can be.

In addition, University of Washington health graduate programs do not give preference to UW undergraduates, nor do they have reservations about our students. You can complete your undergraduate degree at any institution and be considered for admission by these programs. Pick the school where you will shine! If that is a smaller liberal arts school, then that is where you will become the best candidate for a health care program. If you will excel in a larger, research institution, then the University of Washington should garner your consideration.

State residency and admissions

UW health graduate programs do not give preference to a student's undergraduate institution; however, many of them do consider a student's state residency. For example, it is extremely difficult to be admitted to the UW School of Medicine, unless you are a resident of a WWAMI state. This is very common with public medical schools, and applicants will typically apply to the public school in their state of residency and private institutions.

The Dental and Pharmacy schools participate in the WICHE program to determine an applicant's residency. Other programs vary in their applicant priority, so you should always check with the department directly. You can review the Understanding Washington State Residency page to get more information on what is required to establish Washington State residency.

What should I do now to prepare?

Students who plan to study the health sciences at the University Washington are encouraged to complete a challenging curriculum of math, English, and biological, physical, and social sciences. Math through precalculus and at least three years of science are strongly recommended. Since UW's programs in these areas are com¬petitive and rigorous, students may also benefit from the preparation provided by advanced classes (honors, AP, IB). In addition, it is recommended that you volunteer in a health professions area to clarify your goals. Health professionals are expected to be leaders, show commitment to the community and be able to work with a diverse group of people; therefore, undertake activities which will give you experience in these areas.

Services for pre-health students

Due to the number of matriculated students that our office serves, we are unable to meet with prospective students. If you come to the University of Washington, you will be able to work with a prehealth adviser to help you explore your options, prepare and apply to programs.

If you are a transfer student

If you are interested in applying to a health related graduate program, you must complete a number of science courses as part of your undergraduate education, including chemistry, biology, and physics. Many programs also require a year of English, usually a combination of composition and literature.

Start taking science courses as soon as you are ready.

If you are a prehealth student, start the required math and chemistry courses in your freshman and sophomore years. Don't postpone them until you transfer. The required sciences are sequential at the UW, which means they have prerequisites and must be taken in order. For example, we recommend that you don't start chemistry until you are taking at least precalculus, and postponing it until you are taking calculus is even better. In addition, you must take general chemistry before you can take the UW biology sequence.

If you postpone your science coursework until after you transfer to the UW, you could easily find yourself with three years of prerequisite coursework and thus at least four years before you would be able to start your graduate program.

Complete science series at the same school.

If you start a science series at the community college, try to complete it at the same school. Although the credits transfer as a similar course number at UW, the series will often cover information in a slightly different order than the same course at UW. Therefore, if you complete part of a series at one institution, and take the rest elsewhere, you may be missing some class material. If you have questions about this, it is a good idea to ask your adviser.

Is it OK to take pre-health requirements at community college?

How do graduate programs feel about prerequisite courses taken at community colleges? The answer isn't black and white. The level of the coursework at community colleges is certainly comparable; you'll cover the same topics in the same depth as you would in the equivalent courses at the UW. However, graduate programs also want to see how you do in science coursework at a 4-year school. Therefore, we recommend that you take additional sciences after you transfer to the UW.

If you plan to complete a science major, you will have some advanced science coursework completed at a four-year school and the graduate schools can also use those grades to evaluate your performance in science courses. However, this does not mean that you must choose a science major! You could also take additional science electives and complete a non-science major.

The bottom line is that you should take the prehealth courses where ever it is best for you to take them. This doesn't mean where you can get the highest grades, but where you will learn the material as well as possible. If community college is the best place for you now, take the courses there. Once you transfer to the UW, however, it is generally not a good idea to return to the community college to take additional science classes.

Start planning your major before you transfer.

Pre-med, Pre-dent, Pre-pharm etc. are not majors at the University of Washington. Virtually all successful applicants to health graduate programs have completed a bachelor's degree, which means you will need to choose and complete a major. Science majors are not required or even preferred by these programs. Major in a subject you enjoy studying and will do well in.

Getting help and finding more information

Start by viewing our information presentations. Visit the other sections of this page to get more information about how to explore health care options, how to prepare for your area of interest and how to apply successfully.

Consider attending Transfer Thursday at UW. By attending this program you can learn about Admissions to UW, academic areas of study, and other topics of interest to transfer students. During the Transfer Thursday program you can also have a brief meeting with a general advisor, during the hours of 2:30pm to 4:00pm in 141 Mary Gates Hall, the Center for Undergraduate Advising, Diversity and Student Success, which houses Pre-Health Advising at the UW.

To determine which courses at your community college are equivalent to UW courses, visit the UW Equivalency Guide for Washington Community and Technical Colleges.

Your community college adviser can also help you explore your options, plan your coursework, prepare for a major, and find information on transferring to the UW. Once you have transferred to the UW, you will be able to work with a prehealth adviser at UW.

If you are a post-baccalaureate student

A pre-health postbaccalaureate (postbac) student is someone who has already earned an undergraduate degree and would like to return to school to complete prerequisites for admission to a prehealth graduate program (ie: medical school, dental school, pharmacy school or veterinary school). It is more common than you might think to graduate and decide to apply to a health graduate program later. You are not alone!

Motivation for applying to a health graduate program.

It is not unusual for people to decide after they graduate from an undergraduate institution (or even from a master’s or PhD program!) that they want to pursue a health related program. In fact, there can be some advantages to taking this path, as postbac students often have considerable life experience, demonstrated maturity and dedication that graduate programs value in applicants.

However, schools are going to be very interested in your motivation for taking an indirect route to health care. They want to make sure that your decision is based on realistic knowledge of the health field and basically ‘makes sense’. Therefore, you should be thinking now about how you will explain your process to the graduate programs. In addition, it is imperative that you are able to demonstrate your rationale through the activities that you undertake. Therefore, if your stated motivation includes wanting to serve people in a health care setting, you should be seeking out activities that show this is true.

When do you have to retake prerequisites?

If you have taken some of the prerequisite courses as a part of your undergraduate education, it can be difficult to ascertain whether you need to retake them or not. As a general rule, if it has been more than 5 years since you have taken a prerequisite course, you are best served to repeat it. If you did not do well in the prerequisites, you should certainly retake the courses. However, if you graduated recently or if you majored in a science, you generally do not need to repeat all of the classes. You may decide to take some advanced electives in the same field to show that your knowledge is up to date.

You should always check with the schools that you are applying to if you have questions about meeting prerequisites!

How do you take prerequisite courses at UW?

There are two ways to take courses at UW as a postbac student. You can either apply for admission as a postbaccalaureate student, or you can take classes as a nonmatriculated student through the Extension Office.

Postbaccalaureate admission

If you are interested in applying to the University of Washington to complete your coursework as a postbaccalaureate student, you will apply online through the Admissions Office. Be certain that you are mindful of the application deadlines, which are posted on their website. If accepted, then you will be able to use resources available to matriculated students, including prehealth advising, the mock interview program, and the writing center. You will also have registration priority for your prerequisite coursework.

Postbaccalaureate admission is very competitive as space is quite limited for postbacs! The Admissions Office will want to see that you have taken some science coursework already to gauge your preparation for the sciences at UW. You should also have course plan that you can share with the Admissions Office so that they determine how long you will need to complete your prerequisites.

Nonmatriculated enrollment

You also have the option of taking courses as a nonmatriculated student through the Extension Office. Nonmatriculated enrollment is not competitive, and you can take courses from any department on a space available basis. Nonmatriculated students do not have access to all University services, and it can be quite difficult to register for popular science sequences – especially Chemistry, Organic Chemistry and Biology. If you are thinking about applying as a nonmatriculated student, it can be a good idea to contact the departments in which you want to take classes to see how difficult it will be to register.

As postbaccalaureate admission is competitive, and nonmatriculated students sometimes have difficulty registering for classes, you should also look at your other options. Seattle University has a postbac program as does Portland State University. Programs vary widely in regards to length and services available, so it is a good idea to look at several and compare them to see what will best meet your needs.

Sample schedule

If you take your courses at UW, it will typically take you two and a half years to complete the coursework if you are starting from scratch. Students generally apply to the graduate programs after the second year and take the remaining coursework before they begin.

The following is a sample course schedule for postbac students. Note: This schedule only includes the most common science courses required by prehealth graduate programs. You should always research individual programs to be certain you have met all of the prerequisites for admission.


CHEM 142
PHYS 114/121

CHEM 152
PHYS 115/122

CHEM 162
PHYS 116/123


CHEM 237
BIOL 180

CHEM 238
CHEM 241
BIOL 200 

CHEM 239
CHEM 242 
BIOL 220 

YEAR 3BIOC 405BIOC 406 (3) 

Is it OK to take pre-health requirements at community college?

How do graduate programs feel about prerequisite courses taken at community colleges? The answer isn't black and white. The level of the coursework at community colleges is certainly comparable; you'll cover the same topics in the same depth as you would in the equivalent courses at the UW. However, graduate programs also want to see how you do in science coursework at a 4-year school.

The biochemistry sequence required by many health graduate programs is offered by some community colleges. Check the UW Equivalency Guide for Washington Community and Technical Colleges to see if it is offered at a Washington State community college near you. You should plan to take as many science courses as possible at a four-year school, so that programs can use those grades to further evaluate your performance.

Getting help and finding more information

Visit the other sections of this website to get more information about how to explore health care options, how to prepare for your area of interest and how to apply successfully. There are links to other websites that you will find helpful on the other pages as well.

The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) has searchable information on postbac programs across the nation.

If your undergraduate institution has a prehealth committee, it is worthwhile to contact them about their services. Oftentimes, they will assist alums in the application process.

Advising for postbacs

Unfortunately, due to the volume of current students that we see in our office, we are unable to make appointments with non-UW students. If you are an alumnus of the University of Washington or if you are accepted as a matriculated postbaccalaureate student, then you will be able to work with a prehealth adviser at UW. See our Advising Services page for more information. If your undergraduate institution has a prehealth committee, it is worthwhile to contact them about their services. Oftentimes, they will assist alums in the application process. Non-UW students are welcome to watch the our information presentations.

If you are an international student

Each year American universities welcome thousands of international students to their campuses. These students enrich the academic and social environment with their diversity of perspective and experience and with their richness of linguistic and cultural heritage. The students, in turn, are usually excited about the academic opportunities that drew them to American campuses and may have been led to believe that their offers of admission mean that the full panoply of American educational opportunity is available to them. Many are dismayed, consequently, when they discover that while that is largely true, there is one major exception, and that is in the area of medical education. American medical schools (and this includes dental, osteopathic, veterinary and most graduate schools in the health professions), for the most part, will not accept applications from anyone other than American citizens or permanent residents ("green cards").

Why is this?

The first reason is that medical education is very expensive. The tuition is expensive, but the tuition is actually only a fraction of what it costs to educate a doctor. There is a tremendous shortage of medical doctors in the United States right now, and a corresponding emphasis on training students who can practice within this country. If you are planning to stay in the US after your medical training, you can work on applying for citizenship first, in order to indicate your intentions. Secondly, as part of your medical education, you will need to work in hospitals. An F-1 visa specifically prohibits employment.

Also, unlike for undergraduate education, private scholarships are virtually nonexistent for medical school. American students finance their medical education largely through government-sponsored loans, which are only available to citizens and permanent residents. International students are often required to place in escrow a sum equivalent to two to four years’ tuition and fees, which currently can run to over US$300,000.

But I heard that some schools accept international students.

Some do. In this year’s issue of the MSAR, 58 medical schools are listed as accepting international applicants (the University of Washington is not one of them). However, of those 58, twelve will only accept applications from citizens of Canada. Of the remaining 46, fourteen did not take any international applicants during the last application cycle. Typically international students are admitted at one-quarter the rate of American students, and that "international" figure includes Canadian students, international students who are in the last stages of getting their citizenship, and students who are applying for MD/PhD programs (which are more open to international students, but much more competitive).

I’m really interested in medicine. What can I do?

Our office will support your efforts if you decide to apply for medical school but we encourage you to also think about creating a backup plan. We recommend investigating the following:

UW-Seattle health science degree programs

The University of Washington is known internationally for its leadership in the research, teaching, and practice of the health sciences. Housed in the Warren G. Magnuson Health Sciences Center, home to five major interdisciplinary research centers, programs benefit from collaborative relationships with the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance and the UW's three world-class hospitals, including the University of Washington Medical Center. With some of the nation's most prominent schools of medicine, nursing, and pharmacy, Washington has long attracted faculty and staff hailing from the top of their professions. That means numerous opportunities for students of the health sciences to observe clinical work, receive training, and participate in research.

The UW offers a number of majors and graduate programs that prepare students for a career in health sciences. It offers undergraduate degrees in Environmental HealthMedical Technology (Laboratory Medicine), NursingProsthetics and Orthotics, and Speech and Hearing Sciences (not a professional degree; Master's degree required).

It offers Master's degrees in Clinical Health Services (MEDEX), Occupational Therapy, and Public Health.

It offers professional degrees in DentistryMedicinePharmacy (prior undergraduate degree not required), and Physical Therapy.

In addition, the UW offers minors in Bioethics & HumanitiesEnvironmental Health, and Public Health. There is also a degree completion program in Dental Hygiene for students who have completed a dental hygiene training program at another college. (Note: The dental hygiene program is currently undergoing a major revision. Please contact the program for further details.)

You may be interested in viewing this video introduction to the UW Health Sciences.

Recommended reading

Holistic Review – Shaping the Medical Profession One Applicant at a Time
Robert Witzburg MD and Henry Sondheimer MD
April 25th, 2013 New England Journal of Medicine: Vol 368 – pp 1565-1567

The Dog-Eat-Dog World of Applying to Med School
Tamara Livshiz – July 26th, 2009
The New York Times

What Does it Mean to be a Physician?
Michael Whitcomb MD – October 2007
Academic Medicine: Vol 82 – Issue 10 – pp 917-918

More below; adapted from the Pre-Health Useful/Suggested Reading List by the University of Colorado at Boulder and the Pre-Med Reading List by Yale Undergraduate Career Services.


  • Becker, Howard S. et al., Boys in White: Student Culture in Medical School, 1991.
  • Duncan, David Ewing, Residents: The Perils and Promise of Educating Young Doctors.
  • Galanti, Geri-Ann, Caring for Patients from Different Cultures: Case Studies from American Hospitals.
  • Jones, Rosemary, Educational and Career Opportunities in Alternative Medicine, Pima Publishing, 1998.
  • Klass, Perri, A Not Entirely Benign Procedure, 1988.
  • Klass, Perri, Baby Doctor, 1993.
  • Konner, Melvin, M.D., Becoming a Doctor: A Journey of Initiation in Medical School.
  • Lassey, Marie L., William R. Lassey, and Martin Jinks. Health Care Systems Around the World: Characteristics, Issues, Reforms.
  • LeBaron, Charles, Gentle Vengeance.
  • Ludmerer, Kenneth, Time to Heal.
  • Lyons, Dianne Boulerice, Planning Your Career in Alternative Medicine: A Guide to Degree and Certificate Programs in Alternative Healthcare.
  • Magee, Mike, M.D., ed., The 50 Most Positive Doctors in America. An illustrated, coffee table size book published by Spencer Books, Ltd., Canada.
  • Marion, Robert, Learning to Play God; The Coming of Age of a Young Doctor, 1991.
  • Marion, Robert, The Intern Blues.
  • Purtilo, Ruth B. & Amy Haddad, Health Professional and Patient Interaction, 5th Edition.
  • Rothman, Ellen Lerner, White Coat: Becoming a Doctor at Harvard Medical, 1999.
  • Schweitzer, Albert, Out of My Life and Thought.
  • Svahn, David , MD, editor, Let Me Listen to Your Heart, 2001.
  • 270 Ways to Put Your Talent to Work in the Health Field: Extensive Guide to Health Careers. Includes career descriptions, plus information on work setting, education, and salary for more than 270 careers. Also lists contact information for more than 120 organizations offering additional information. October 1998.


  • Adams, Patch with Maureen Mylander, Gesundheit (out of print, check your libraries).
  • Adams, Patch and Pamela Jacobs, Housecalls. How We Can All Heal The World One Visit at a Time.
  • Bickel, Janet, Women in Medicine: Getting in, Growing, and Advancing.
  • Breedlove, Charlene, ed., Uncharted Lines: Poems from the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).
  • Carson, Ben, Gifted Hands, the Ben Carson Story, 1990.
  • Colgrove, Melba, Harold Bloomfield, & Peter McWilliams, How to Survive the Loss of a Love.
  • Dan, Bruce, A Piece of My Mind: A Collection of Essays from JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association),1998.
  • Gawande, Atul, Complications: A Surgeon's Notes on an Imperfect Science, 2002 (Metropolitan Books).
  • Gerger, Lane, Married to their Careers: Career and Family Dilemmas in Doctors' Lives, 1983.
  • Hartman, David & B. Asbell, White Cane: The Extraordinary Odyssey of a Blind Physician, 1978.
  • Hilfiker, David, Healing the Wounds: A Physician Looks at his Work, 1988.
  • Institute of Medicine, The Right Thing to Do, The Smart Thing to Do, 2001 (National Academy Press).
  • McPhee, John, Heirs of General Practice, 1988.
  • Lapierre, Dominique, Beyond Love.
  • Laster, Leonard, M.D., Life After Medical School. Thirty-two Doctors Describe How They Shaped Their Medical Careers.
  • Nuland, Sherwin B., The Biography of Medicine.
  • Nuland, Sherwin B., How We Die.
  • Nuland, Sherwin B. Doctors.
  • Oz, Mehmet, et al., Healing from the Heart, the Power of Complementary Medicine, 1998.
  • Pekkanen, Hohn. MD, Doctors Talk about Themselves, 1990.
  • Reynolds, Richard, M.D. & John Stone, M.D., eds., On Doctoring: Stories, Poems, Essays.
  • Savett, L. A., The Human Side of Medicine: What It's Like To Be A Patient; What It's Like To Be A Physician, 2002.
  • Selzer, Richard, Letters to a Young Doctor, 1982 (Harcourt, Brace & Co)
  • Spiro, Howard et al. (eds.), Empathy and the Practice of Medicine, Beyond the Pill and Scalpel, 1993.
  • Stone, John, In the Country of Hearts: Journeys in the Art of Medicine, 1992.
  • Williams, William Carlos, The Doctor Stories, 1984.
  • Zazove, Philip, When the Phone Rings, My Bed Shakes: Memoirs of a Deaf Doctor, 1993.


  • Belli, Angela and Jack Coulehan, eds., Blood and Bone.
  • Biro, David, One Hundred Days: My Unexpected Journey from Doctor to Patient, 2000 (Vintage Books)
  • Broyard, Anatole, Intoxicated by My Illness.
  • Burztajn, Harold, Medical Choices, Medical Chances. How Patients, Families and Physicians Can Cope with Uncertainty (out of print, check your library).
  • Eliot, George, Middlemarch.
  • Fadiman, Anne, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down.
  • Fox, Simon and Karen Fox. What Can I Say?
  • Frank, Arthur, At the Will of the Body: Reflections on Illness, 1992.
  • Heymann, Jody, Equal Partners, 1995.
  • Hilfiker, David, Not All Of Us Are Saints. Hill and Wang, 1994.
  • Iserson, Kenneth, Death to Dust: What Happens to Dead Bodies?, 1994
  • Kaysen, Susanna, Girl Interrupted, 1993.
  • Kleinman, Arthur, The Illness Narratives.
  • Lacombe, Michael A., ed., On Being a Doctor (poems and essays).
  • Lightman, Alan, The Diagnosis, 2000.
  • Lorde, Audre, The Cancer Journals, 1980.
  • McCrum, Robert, My Year Off, Recovering Life After A Stroke, 1998.
  • Mukan, Jon, ed., Articulations.
  • Price, Reynolds, A Whole New Year, 1994.
  • Radner, Gilda, It's Always Something, 1990.
  • Remen, Rachel Naomi, Kitchen Table Wisdom.
  • Rosenbaum, Edward, A Taste of My Own Medicine (=The Doctor), 1988.
  • Sacks, Oliver, A Leg to Stand On, 1984.
  • Styron, William, Darkenss Visible: A Memoir of Madness, 1990.
  • Verghese, Abraham, My Own Country.


  • Brody, Howard, Stories of Sickness.
  • Chekhov, Anton, Ward Six and Other Stories.
  • Crichton, Michael, Five Patients: The Hospital Explained, 1989.
  • Dans, Peter E., M.D., Doctors in the Movies: Boil the Water and Just Say Aah.
  • Garrett, Susan, Taking Care of Our Own: A Year in the Life of a Small Hospital, 1995.
  • Gibbs, Harlan, M.D. and Alan Duncan Ross, The Medicine of ER, or How We Almost Die, Basic Books, 1996.
  • Grim, Pamela, Just Trying to Save a Few Lives; Tales of Life and Death from the ER, 2002.
  • Sawicki, Stephen, Animal Hospital, 1997.


  • Malcom, Andrew, Someday: The Story of a Mother and Her Son, 1992.
  • Roth, Phillip, Patrimony: A True Story, 1991.

Other perspectives

  • Brody, Howard, Stories of Sickness, 1988.
  • Coles, Robert, The Call of Stories, Teaching and the Moral Imagination, 1990.
  • Coles, Robert, The Call of Service: A Witness to Idealism, Reprint, 1994.
  • Coles, Robert, A Robert Coles Omnibus, 1993.
  • Hawkins, Anne, Reconstructing Illness: Studies in Pathography, 1993.
  • Hunter, Kathryn, Doctor as Stories: The Narrative Structure of Medical Knowledge, 1991.
  • Illich, Ivan, Limits to Medicine; Medical Nemesis, the Expropriation fo Health,1999.
  • Lamm, Richard D., The Brave New World of Health Care, 2003.
  • Martin, Emily. Flexible Bodies: Tracking Immunity in American Culture from the Days of Polio to the Age of AIDS, 1994.
  • Martin, Emily, The Woman in the Body: A Cultural Analysis of Reproduction, 1992.
  • Nesse, Randollph M. & George C. Williams, Why We Get Sick: The New Science of Darwinian Medicine, 1996.
  • Sontage, Susan, Illness As Metaphor and AIDS and Its Metaphors, 1991.
  • Weil, Andrew, Health and Healing, 1988.

Medical ethics

  • Bosk, Charles L., Forgive and Remember: Managing Medical Failure
  • Gorovitz, Samuel, Doctor's Dilemmas.
  • Gorovitz, Samuel, Drawing the Line, Life, Death, and Ethical Choices in an American Hospital,1991.
  • Nechas, Eileen and Denise Foley, Unequal Treatment, What You Don't Know About How Women are Treated by the Medical Community.
  • Pence, Gregory E., Classic Cases in Medical Ethics: Accounts of Cases that Have Shaped Medical Ethics with Philosophical, Legal, and historical Background.
  • Salmon, J. Warren, editor, The Corporate Transformation of Health Care: Perspectives and Implications.
  • Starr, Paul, The Social Transformation of American Medicine.

Medical science

  • Thomas, Lewis, The Youngest Science: Notes of a Medicine-Watcher
  • Other science books authored by Lewis Thomas are:
  • The Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher
  • The Medusa and the Snail: More Notes of a Biology Watcher
  • Late Night Thoughts on Listening to Mahler's Ninth Symphony
  • The Fragile Species


  • Alvord, Lori and Elizabeth Van Pelt, The Scalpel and the Silver Bear: the first Navajo woman surgeon, 1999 (Bantam Books).
  • Fister, Jeffrey, The Plaque Makers, 1994
  • Gevitz, Norman, The D.O. as Osteopathic Medicine in America, 1982.
  • Gevitz, Norman, Other Healers: Unorthodox Medicine in America, 1988.
  • Gevitz, Norman, The D.O.s: Osteopathic Medicine in America, 1982.
  • Harvey, James, Young American Health Quackery: Collected Essays.
  • Loudon, Irvine, Ed., Western Medicine, An Illustrated History, 1997.
  • Moore, Stuart, Chiropractic in America: The History of a Medical Alternative, 1993.
  • Northup, George, Osteopathic Medicine - an American Reformation, 1979
  • Rothman, Sheil, Living in the Shadow of Death: Tuberculosis and the Social Experience of Illness in American History, 1994.
  • Starr, Paul, The Social Transformation of American Medicine.
  • Young, Harvey, The Medical Messiahs, A Social History of Health Quackery in Twentieth-Century America, 1967.

Veterinary medicine

  • Drum, Sue and H. E. Whiteley, Women in Veterinary Practice: Profiles of Success
  • Ford, C. M. Aleen Cust, Veterinary Surgeon. Britain's First Woman Vet
  • Frey, Frederic, Phyllis, Phallus, Genghis Cohen, and Other Creatures I Have Known
  • Gage, Loretta and Nancy Gage, If Wishes Were Horses. 1995
  • Gasofer, Seymour, In Sickness and In Love
  • Haddock, Sally, The Making of a Woman Vet
  • Hasselbush, Willard C., Mack Morris: Veterinarian
  • Henderson, W. M., A Man of the Country
  • Herriot, James, All Things Bright and Beautiful, 1973
  • Herriot, James, All Creatures Great and Small, 1972
  • Herriot, James, All Things Wise and Wonderful, 1977
  • Herriot, James. The Lord God Made Them All
  • Karesh, William, Appointment at the Ends of the World: memoirs of a wildlife veterinarian, 1999
  • Manley, Frank, A Veterinary Odyssey
  • Miller, Robert M., Most of my Patients Are Animals
  • Porter, James A. Doctor, Matilda's in Labor
  • Stirling, J., On Four Legs and Two
  • Stobo, T. W., A Vet's Tale - the Passing Years
  • Taylor, David, Vet On the Wild Side
  • Taylor, David, Is There A Doctor in the Zoo?, 1978
  • Taylor, David, Zoo Vet: Adventure of a Wild Animal Doctor
  • Taylor, David. Next Panda, Please
  • Ware, Jean and Hugh Hunt, The Several Lives of a Victorian Vet

Current affairs

  • The New York Times, particularly the Tuesday and Sunday Edition
  • Science
  • The Wall Street Journal
  • Discover
  • The American Medical News
  • The New Physician (published by medical students)
  • Scientific American
  • Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)
  • The New England Journal of Medicine (weekly journal)
  • Journal of the American Academic of Optometry
  • Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA)

Being a doctor

  • Complications, Atul Gawande
  • Arrowsmith, Sinclair Lewis
  • On Doctoring: Stories, Poems, Essays, Richard Reynolds ed.
  • House of God, Samuel Shem
  • Doctor Stories, William Carlos Williams


  • Mountains Beyond Mountains, Tracy Kidder (biography of Paul Farmer)

Healthcare policy and economics

  • Understanding Health Policy: A Clinical Approach, Bodenheimer and Grumbach
  • Your Money or Your Life, David Cutler
  • Who Shall Live?, Victor Fuchs

History of medicine

  • Napoleon’s Glands and Other Adventures in Biohistory, Arno Karlen
  • American Medicine Comes of Age, 1840-1920, Lester King
  • A History of Public Health, George Rosen
  • The Social Transformation of American Medicine, Paul Starr
  • The Youngest Science: Notes of a Medicine Watcher, Lewis Thomas
  • My Own Country, Abraham Verghese (AIDS epidemic)

Medical education

  • A Not Entirely Benign Procedure, Perri Klass
  • Learning to Play God, Robert Marion
  • Singular Intimacies, Danielle Ofri

Medical ethics

  • Principles of Biomedical Ethics, Beauchamp and Childress
  • First, Do No Harm, Lisa Belkin
  • Classic Cases in Medical Ethics, Gregory Pence
  • Classic Works in Medical Ethics, Gregory Pence

Tough decisions

  • Arviso Alvord, Dr. Lori, The Scalpel and the Silver Bear.
  • Belkin, Lisa, First Do No Harm, 1993.
  • Brody, Howard, Stories of Sickness.
  • Dans, Peter E., MD, Doctors in the Movies: Boil the Water and Just Say Aah.
  • Elders, Joycelyn, Joycelyn Elders, M.D.: From Sharecropoper's Daughter to Surgeon General of the USA.
  • Garrett, Susan, Taking Care of Our Own: A Year in the Life of a Small Hospital, 1995.
  • Sawicki, Stephen, Animal Hospital, 1997.
  • Wilhelm, Kate, Where Late the Sweet Bird Sings, 1998 (Tor Books).

Patient’s' perspective

  • The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, Anne Fadiman
  • A Whole New Life, Reynolds Price

Science and medicine

  • A PhD is Not Enough, Peter Feibelman
  • The Eighth Day of Creation, Horace Judson
  • Microbe Hunters, Paul de Kruif


  • The Making of a Surgeon, William Nolen
  • Letters to a Young Doctor, Richard Selzer
  • Confessions of a Knife, Richard Selzer
  • When the Air Hits Your Brain, Frank Vertosick (neurosurgery)