Anyone who has submitted grant proposals during the last ten years is aware that the on-campus research F&A cost rate has been fairly stable. It varied between 53% in 1990 to 52% in 2000 with a slight decrease to 48.5% in the middle of the decade. While the rate has been quite stable, the amount of F&A cost reimbursement has increased from $61 million in 1990 to $119 million in 2000 primarily because of the increase in grant and contract awards. F&A cost reimbursement is combined with other local revenue to make up the Designated Operating Fund (DOF). F&A cost reimbursement made up 68% of Designated Operating Fund revenue in FY 2000. Other significant revenue sources are investment income with 16% of the total, Summer Quarter tuition with 7% and institutional overhead on self-sustaining budgets 5%. It should be noted that investment income can vary considerably from year to year based on the performance of the University's investment portfolio. If investment income were to decline sharply, the percentage of the total fund provided by the other revenue sources would necessarily increase proportionately. Even taking the other DOF revenue sources into account, by far the biggest contributor to the increase in the fund revenue has been the increase in F&A reimbursement.