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Changes from Pine 4.00 to 4.01

This information is also available in Pine 4.01 itself, in the Release Notes which can be accessed from Pine's MAIN MENU screen:

        RELEASE NOTES for Pine -- A Program for Internet News and Email
                          University of Washington
   Contents of this page:
     * Summary of Recent Changes
          + Changes in Pine 4.01
          + Things not fixed in Pine 4.01
          + Improvements made in Pine 4.00
     * PC-Pine Notes
     * Configuration
     * Credits
     * Legal Notices
Summary of Recent Changes

   We have been very gratified by the response to Pine 4.00, both because
   it is clear that many people still care about Pine, and also because,
   notwithstanding some rough edges, folks seem to be generally pleased
   with the new functionality. Thank you for your continuing interest and
   Version 4.01 has now been released, barely a week after 4.00. This was
   driven by the discovery of a security vulnerability in the imapd
   program packaged with Pine 4.00. (The problem exists in all previous
   versions of the University of Washington's IMAP4.1 server, too.) In
   the few days available, there was no time to correct very many of the
   4.00 bugs that have been reported, but a few of them have been
   corrected ...
  Changes in Pine 4.01
     * Included updated imapd with fix for security vulnerabilty.
     * Added feature to "quell-folder-internal-msg"
          + Beginning with version 4.00, Pine supports enhanced
            functionality for sites using the standard Unix mailbox
            format or the MMDF mailbox format. It does this by creating a
            "pseudo-message" at the beginning of the folder which holds
            the following values:
               o unique identifier validity stamp
               o last assigned unique identifer
               o any keyword flags assigned to the mailbox
            These values are essential for the correct operation of
            modern IMAP and POP servers (which use persistent unique
            identifiers, or UIDs), but Pine also needs them to support
            capabilities such as being able to mark messages as Answered
            when the Reply has been postponed, and (on systems where Unix
            or MMDF folder formats are not standard), the ability to
            create a folder in one of these formats. (Without the pseudo
            message to identify the mailbox format type, the folder would
            be empty and Pine would not know the desired format type for
            subsequent use.)
            One disadvantage of this scheme is that mailers that are not
            built on top of the University of Washington's message access
            subroutine libraries will not "hide" the pseudo message from
            users. Another disadvantage of having these pseudo messages
            is that, when found in folders used to receive new messages,
            some mail notification tools may be confused and behave
            incorrectly. There are several solutions to this problem. For
            example, some sites have modified the notification tools to
            ignore mailboxes whose length corresponds to the pseudo
            message. However, these pseudo messages may be deemed
            undesirable at sites where IMAP or POP are not used, and
            where it is more important to support other unmodified mail
            tools than to permit Pine to be able to mark messages as
            Answered when the Reply is postponed. Accordingly, Pine 4.01
            offers a new feature to "quell-folder-internal-msg".
            Note that this feature only relates to mailboxes in standard
            Unix or MMDF format. See the help text for this feature
            (which is set via the SETUP CONFIGURATION screen) for more
            details on its effect.
     * Removed extra newlines in some Reply cases
     * Fixed incorrect header wrapping
     * Fixed Pico temporary file permissions
     * Fixed "Error preparing to close file: invalid argument"
     * Fixed "Select fails: [NOTIMAP4] Can't do peeking fetch]"
     * Fixed "Search Failed: Unknown Search Criteria 1:524"
     * Fixed bug in determining "first-unread" message
     * Fixed some build problems for SGI and SCO platforms
     * Fixed some sorting problems with address books
     * Fixed inability to specify "no fcc" in address book entries
          + You may enter "" (two double quotation marks) in the Fcc
            field of the addressbook entry editor (not the message
            composer) to specify that the message should not be saved to
            a folder when using this entry. (It no longer works to
            specify "/dev/null").
     * Added notification related to "mbox" driver
     * Revised "new user" message and prompt (and docserver behavior)
     * Reorganized Pine ports document to group them by vendor
     * Added explanation of "Mailbox vulnerable" warning in Release Notes
     * Added ability to specify user name on nntp-server via "/user="
     * Path names are sometimes incorrectly concatenated with folder
       collection path specification
  Things not fixed in Pine 4.01
     * The < command doesn't always take you to the next level up
     * The "expanded-view-of-folders" feature is still gone
          + Many of you noticed that this feature was retired in Pine
            4.00 ... and were not pleased. Accordingly, we will be
            investigating the feasibility of restoring this feature while
            still offering the new hierarchical folder support.
     * Several News handling problems
     * Several URL handling problems
     * Several build problems
   Regarding mail disappearing from the system spool directory:
          Beginning with Pine 4.00 (but also with earlier versions of the
          University of Washington's imapd server), a new INBOX access
          method is available as part of the standard configuration. It
          is called the "mbox" driver and it works like this:
          If the file "mbox" exists in the user's home directory, and is
          in Unix mailbox format, then when INBOX is opened this file
          will be selected as INBOX instead of the mail spool file.
          Messages will be automatically transferred from the mail spool
          file into the mbox file. Beginning with Pine 4.01, a message is
          displayed whenever Pine copies messages from the system mail
          spool directory to the mbox file.
          The advantage of this method is that, after new mail has been
          copied from the system mail spool, all subsequent access is
          confined to the user's home directory, which is desirable on
          some systems. However, a possible disadvantage is that mail
          tools other than those from the University of Washington will
          not know to look for mail in the user's mbox file. For example,
          POP or IMAP servers other than those from the University of
          Washington, and many "new mail notification" programs may not
          work as expected with this driver enabled.
          To disable this behavior, either remove/rename the "mbox" file
          or find the "disable-these-drivers=" variable in your Pine
          configuration file and add "mbox" to it. You must manually edit
          the config file so that you see the following:
  Improvements made in Pine 4.00
     * New screen navigation commands:
       < (the "less than" symbol) for "level up"
       > (the "greater than" symbol) for "level down"
          + No need to Shift for < and > keys (just use , and . keys)
          + Optional use of left and right arrow keys for same functions
            as < and > keys (by setting "enable-arrow-navigation"
     * Hierarchical folder collections
          + If multiple folder collections are defined, they are now
            presented in a COLLECTION LIST screen. Choosing a folder
            collection from this screen displays its FOLDER LIST screen.
            (Previous versions of Pine showed all folder collections in
            one FOLDER LIST screen.)
          + When a folder is added to a collection in the FOLDER LIST
            screen, it can now also be defined to be a subdirectory
            (rather than a mailfolder-file containing messages), using
            the new command "^X Create Directory" at the "Folder name to
            add :" prompt. Each such subdirectory can contain mail
            folders and/or other subdirectories, thus allowing for the
            creation of a hierarchical structure within each folder
     * URL recognition and viewer dispatch
          + With Pine now capable of recognizing URLs and dispatching
            your favorite web browser to view them, it is now
            straightforward to access additional web-based information
            about Pine. Accordingly, the Update command on Pine's SETUP
            menu has been retired.
     * Basic rendering of message bodies in HTML format
     * Help screens with hyperlinks to other help screens and dynamic
       content (for example, showing current working directory)
     * Addressbooks improvements
          + Revised screens and commands
          + Can now store addressbook on IMAP server. This permits access
            to the same addressbook from different computers running Unix
            or PC Pine . (These remote addressbooks cannot be used by
            other email clients.)
          + Aggregate operations
          + LDAP support
     * Various MIME improvements
     * IMAP4.1 protocol revisions (but no disconnected or offline mode
          + The UNIX format support now maintains unique identifiers
            (UIDs) and keyword flags for each message, and keeps a
            message at the start of the file which contains the UID base
            information and a list of assigned keywords. There is no way
            to disable this behavior, since it would disable IMAP4rev1
            support. This message may show up if you access the mailbox
            as a file using older mail software (e.g. Pine 3.9x). It is
            invisible with IMAP or POP access, or with access as a file
            using Pine . Also see Pine 4.01's new feature
     * Support for LDAP directory access and Kerberos V authentication if
       suitable libraries (U. of Michigan LDAP, MIT GSSAPI) are provided
       at compile time (see Pine's Technical Notes for details). More
       information on LDAP and on Kerberos can be found on the World Wide
       Web at the following URLs (as of 29 June 1998), respectively:
     * Enhanced functions
          + GoTo and Save commands:
               o Use TAB to complete, TAB TAB to list matches beginning
                 with entered string (when "enable-tab-completion"
                 feature is set)
               o ^X lists folder names matching substring (when
                 "enable-partial-match-lists" feature is set)
          + GoTo command has more default options, e.g. always stay in
            primary collection
          + Folder List:
               o Select/Zoom based on text match or folder properties
               o Select can search multiple folders
          + SETUP:
               o Can edit incoming folder collection, (e.g. delete entry,
                 not folder)
               o New setup screens (folder collections, address books,
     * Composer improvements
          + "Answered" flag now set when postponed replies are sent
          + Search and replace feature
          + Cut-from-cursor feature now works in header
          + Configurable reply-indent-string
          + Can request various Delivery Service Notification options
     * Preferences improvements
          + New selections on the SETUP menu (accessed from the MAIN MENU
               o collectionList - for defining folder collections (moved
                 here from being a single option - "folder-collections" -
                 in SETUP CONFIGURATION)
               o AddressBooks - for defining address books
               o Directory - for defining LDAP directory servers - this
                 selection is only available on the SETUP menu if your
                 version of Pine was compiled with LDAP (Lightweight
                 Directory Access Protocol) access support. For
                 information on LDAP, visit the University of Michigan's
                 WWW site at the URL (as of 29 June 1998):
          + New features in SETUP CONFIGURATION:
               o disable-take-last-comma-first
               o enable-arrow-navigation
               o enable-delivery-status-notification
               o enable-exit-via-lessthan-command
               o enable-fast-recent-test
               o enable-lame-list-mode
               o enable-msg-view-attachments
               o enable-msg-view-urls
               o enable-msg-view-web-hostnames
               o enable-msg-view-forced-arrows
               o enable-print-via-y-command
               o enable-reply-indent-string-editing
               o enable-search-and-replace
               o enable-sigdashes
               o enable-partial-match-lists
               o expunge-without-confirm-everywhere
               o ldap-result-to-addrbook-add
               o news-deletes-across-groups
          + New, "hidden" features - must be manually added to .pinerc
            file, cannot be set in SETUP CONFIGURATION screen:
               o allow-changing-from
               o quell-partial-fetching
               o termdef-takes-precedence
            For details, see Pine 's Technical Notes.
          + New variables in configuration (.pinerc) file:
               o incoming-startup-rule:
                 Sets message which cursor begins on.
               o url-viewers:
                 List of programs to open Internet URLs (e.g. http or ftp
               o ldap-servers:
                 LDAP servers for looking up addresses (set using SETUP
                 DIRECTORY SERVERS screen).
               o folder-sort-rule:
                 Defines method used to sort FOLDER LIST screen
               o form-letter-folder:
                 Defines folder to hold oft-sent, semi-static messages
          + Superceded features in configuration (.pinerc) file:
               o expanded-view-of-addressbooks
               o expanded-view-of-folders
               o disable-update-cmd
     * Miscellaneous improvements
          + Bug report screen and Report Bug command replaced by help
            screen covering "Places to Look for More Answers" and
            "Requesting help" with hyperlinks to it from many other help
          + Performance:
               o Server-based sorting
               o Fast ordered-subject threading including IMAP server
                 based threading
               o Quicker display of index entries and message text
               o Reduced memory use for default Unix mailbox format
                    # No longer keeps entire mailbox in memory
          + Revised debug options to allow more flexibility
          + New local file formats mbx and mx
          + New "Mailbox vulnerable" warning message
               o This message indicates that Pine was not able to create
                 the lockfile needed on most systems to coordinate access
                 between Pine and the system's mail delivery program. The
                 failure is typically a result of unduly restrictive
                 protections on the system mail spool directory. The
                 recommended solution is to set the permissions on that
                 directory to 1777. Warning: some sites have installed
                 Pine as a privileged setgid program in order to avoid
                 having to make the spool directory world-writable. We
                 strongly recommend against doing this, as Pine was never
                 designed to run with privileges and represents a
                 significant security risk if operated in that mode. For
                 more information on this topic, including why setting
                 one's mail spool directory to 1777 is not a security
                 risk, please see "What Systems Managers Need to Know
                 about Pine File Locking".
          + Support for news access via IMAP by proxying through the
            University of Washington-developed IMAP server; syntax:
          + E - Exit key used more consistently as way out of SETUP or
            SELECT screens
          + Screen showing list of messages in a folder renamed from
          + pico -h option to display current command line options &
            current version
          + Multilingual searching of the following character sets
            US-ASCII, UTF-8, ISO-8859-1, ISO-8859-2, ISO-8859-3,
            ISO-8859-4, ISO-8859-5, ISO-8859-6, ISO-8859-7, ISO-8859-8,
            ISO-8859-9, ISO-8859-10, ISO-8859-13, ISO-8859-15,
            ISO-2022-JP, ISO-2022-KR, ISO-2022-CN, ISO-2022-JP-1,
            ISO-2022-JP-2, GB2312 (alias CN-GB), CN-GB-12345, BIG5 (alias
            CN-BIG5), EUC-JP, EUC-KR, Shift_JIS, KOI8-R, KOI8-U (alias
            KOI8-RU), TIS-620, VISCII.
            All ISO-2022-?? charsets are treated identically, and support
            ASCII, JIS Roman, hankaku katakana, ISO-8859-[1 - 10], TIS,
            GB 2312, JIS X 0208, JIS X 0212, KSC 5601, and planes 1 and 2
            of CNS 11643. EUC-JP includes support for JIS X 0212 and
            hankaku katakana.
          + Pico 255 character line length limit: wrap instead of
          + Numerous bug fixes
     * Not yet done in
       The following features have been deferred for inclusion in a
       future version of Pine:
          + "Kill" files
          + Offline operation
          + Disconnected operation
  New and improved in previous releases
   For changes to Pine versions in previous releases, please consult the
   section "Pine Release Chronology & Version Changes" in the Pine
   Information Center at:
PC-Pine Notes

   PC-Pine is available for 32 bit Windows only. And while it is not a
   full GUI Windows application, it supports numerous GUI amenities,
   including: tool bar, scroll bar, pull-down menus, expanded mouse
   support, etc.
   New in PC-Pine 4.00:
     * Built-in LDAP directory service support.
     * Remote addressbook support. The addressbook can be stored on an
       IMAP server, so it can be accessed from different computers
       running Unix Pine or PC-Pine . See Setup/AddressBooks screen for
       more details.
     * POP support (though not in traditional offline mode).
     * Built-in spell checking.
     * Full READ-WRITE access to local Unix-style folders.
   Additional notes:
     * While message folders may be either local or remote, Pine's
       support files must, generally speaking, be located on your PC's
       local disk. These files include Pine's configuration file
       (PINERC), signature file (PINE.SIG), postponed and interrupted
       message folders, debug files and newsgroup configuration file
       (NEWSRC). There are, however, two exceptions.
       The postponed messages folder can be defined in the Setup/Config
       to be on an IMAP server. This allows it to be accessible from both
       Unix Pine and PC-Pine thus allowing you to, for example, begin
       composing a message in Unix Pine, postpone it, and resume its
       composition later with PC-Pine, provided that both Pine
       configurations specify the same postponed messages folder
       location. For example:
       It's also possible, depending on your local system configuration,
       to arrange remote access to your NEWSRC as well. The advantage, as
       with the postponed message folder, is that both Unix Pine and
       PC-Pine can refer to the same information. See the Main Menu's
       help text section on "Reading News" for more information.
     * The PC-Pine message folder format is based on byte-counts for
       maximum efficiency, so they must not be edited. The format is
       non-standard, but conversion utilities would not be difficult.
       This format is supported in Unix Pine as well.

  Configuration precedence
   There are several levels of Pine configuration. Configuration values
   at a given level override corresponding values at lower levels. In
   order of increasing precedence:
     * built-in defaults
     * system-wide pine.conf file
     * personal .pinerc file (may be set via built-in Setup/Config menu.)
     * command-line options
     * system-wide pine.conf.fixed file
   There is one exception to the rule that configuration values are
   replaced by the value of the same option in a higher-precedence file:
   the feature-list variable has values that are additive, but can be
   negated by prepending "no-" in front of an individual feature name.
   Note, this is done automatically for you when you change these values
   via the Setup/Config command.
  File name defaults
    = directory where pine.exe found.
    = directory where pinerc found.
   * = default file name is overridable in pinerc.
   $HOME, if not explicitly set, defaults to root of the current drive.
   $MAILCAPS, if set, is used in lieu of the default mailcap search
   + between the mailcap paths implies that the two files are combined.
   ; between other default paths implies that the first one found is
   Pine looks for most support files in the same directory it finds its
   personal configuration file (pinerc). The -p command-line flag may be
   used to specify a particular path name for the pinerc file. If a
   pinerc file does not exist, it will be created (if directory
   permissions allow). In PC-Pine, if -p or $PINERC are not defined, Pine
   will look in $HOME\PINE and the directory containing the PINE.EXE. If
   a PINERC file does not exist in either one, it will create one in the
   first of those two directories that is writable. In detail:


 executable     \pine.exe
 help index     \pine.ndx
 help text      \pine.hlp

 pers config    $PINERC  ;  $HOME\pine\pinerc  ;  \pinerc
 global cfg     $PINECONF

 password       \pine.pwd
 debug          \pinedebg.txt
 crash          \pinecrsh.txt
 signature*     \pine.sig
 addressbook*   \addrbook
 addrbook lu    \    (appends .lu to addrbk name.)
 mailcap*       \mailcap  +  \mailcap
 mimetypes*     \mimetype +  \mimetype
 newsrc*        $HOME\newsrc (if exists, else) \newsrc
 sentmail*      $HOME\mail\sentmail.mtx
 postponed*     $HOME\mail\postpond.mtx
 interrupted    $HOME\mail\intruptd

 Unix Pine:

 executable     /pine
 persnl cfg     ~/.pinerc
 global cfg     /usr/local/lib/pine.conf
 fixed cfg      /usr/local/lib/pine.conf.fixed
 local help     /usr/local/lib/

 interrupted    ~/.pine-interrupted-mail
 debug          ~/.pine-debugN
 crash          ~/.pine-crash
 newsrc*        ~/.newsrc
 signature*     /.signature
 addressbook*   /.addressbook
 addrbook lu    /  (appends .lu to addrbk name.)
 postponed*     ~/mail/postponed-msgs
 sentmail*      ~/mail/sent-mail
 mailcap*       ~/.mailcap + /etc/mailcap
 + /usr/etc/mailcap + /usr/local/etc/mailcap
 mimetypes*     ~/.mime.types + /etc/mime.types + /usr/local/lib/mime.types

 news-spool     varies across Unix flavors, e.g. /usr/spool/news or /var/news
 active-news    varies across Unix flavors, e.g. /usr/lib/news/active
 lock files     /tmp/.\usr\spool\mail\xxxx
 inbox          /usr/spool/mail/xxxx
 password       /etc/passwd

  Mailcap files
   Pine honors the mailcap configuration system for specifying external
   programs for handling attachments. The mailcap file maps MIME
   attachment types to the external programs loaded on your system which
   can display and/or print the file. A sample mailcap file comes bundled
   with the Pine distribution. It includes comments which explain the
   syntax you need to use for mailcap. With the mailcap file, any program
   (mail readers, newsreaders, WWW clients) can use the same
   configuration for handling MIME-encoded data.
  MIME-Types files
   Pine uses mime-types files (.mime.types or MIMETYPE) to determine what
   Content-Type to use for labeling an attached file, based on the file
   extension. That is, this file provides a mapping between filename
   extensions and MIME content-types.
  Environment variables
   PC-Pine uses the following environment variables:
 PINERC      (Optional path to pinerc file.)
 PINECONF    (Optional path to global pine config file.)
 MAILCAPS    (A semicolon delimited list of path names to mailcap files.)

   Unix Pine uses the following environment variables:
 TERM        (Tells Pine what kind of terminal is being used.)
 DISPLAY     (Determines if Pine will try to display IMAGE attachments.)
 SHELL       (If not set, default is /bin/sh )
 MAILCAPS    (A colon delimited list of path names to mailcap files)


   The University of Washington Pine development team (part of the
   University of Washington Office of Computing & Communications)

 Project Leader:           Mike Seibel
 Principal authors:        Mike Seibel, Steve Hubert, Laurence Lundblade*
 C-Client library & IMAPd: Mark Crispin
 Pico, the PIne COmposer:  Mike Seibel
 Bug triage, user support: David Miller*
 Pine Web Pages:           Stefan Kramer, David Miller*
 Documentation:            Many people!
 PC-Pine:                  Tom Unger, Mike Seibel
 Project oversight:        Terry Gray, Lori Stevens
 Principal Patrons:        Ron Johnson, Mike Bryant
 Additional support:       NorthWestNet
 Initial Pine code base:   Elm, by Dave Taylor & USENET Community Trust
 Initial Pico code base:   MicroEmacs 3.6, by Dave G. Conroy
 User Interface design:    Inspired by UCLA's "Ben" mailer for MVS

 * Emeritus

 We'd also like to acknowledge the following contributions and contributors:
 Pine for VMS:  Portia Shao and Yehavi Bourvine
 Pine for OS/2: David Nugent
 Special mention:   David Wall
 Bug reports, bug fixes, ports, suggestions & encouragement:

 The world-wide Pine community, including...

 Shoa Aminpour        Richard Gering     Richard Murphy
 J.J. Baily           Gordon Good        Il Oh
 Billy Barron         Bob Gregory        Mike Ramey
 Chris Beecher        Ed Greshko         Phil Rand
 John Benjamins       Dmitri L. Gringauz Jochiam Richter
 Birko Bergt          David Halliwell    Thomas Riemer
 Ken Bobey            Peter Hausken      Tim Rice
 Andy Brager          Jeff Hayward       Alexis Rosen
 D.K. Brownlee        Ron Johnson        Michael Ross
 Brian Burriston      William Kreuter    Bob Sandstrom
 Bill Campbell        Pekka Kytolaakso   Michael F. Santangelo
 Russel Campbell      Barry Landy        Shin-ya Satoh
 Donn Cave            Chris Latham       Corey Satten
 Richard Cheever      Jon Lebo           Michael Shepard
 Mike Coghlan         Allen Leonard      Vladimir Solnicky
 Justine Comer        Robert L. Lewis    Alan Thew
 Chuck Cooper         Bruce Lilly        Jason R. Thorpe
 Barry Cornelius      Matthew Lyle       Rick Troxel
 Michael A. Crowley   John Mackin        Marc Unangst
 Judith M. Dixon      James Matheson     Edward Vielmetti
 Jeff D. Doran        Nancy McGough      Ross Wakelin
 Tony Flemming        Mark McNair        Rich Wales
 Matthew Freedman     Pete Mellor        David Wall
 Richard Fritz        Dave Miller        Bob Williams
 Marcelo A. Gallardo  Don Miller         Steve Woodyatt
 Adam Garrett         Robert Morris

   And many others... Our thanks to all!
   The most recent Pine version is available in source form via anonymous
   FTP from Internet host in the file
   More Pine files and information (e.g., pre-built binaries, FAQs,
   technical documentation and history) are available via FTP or WWW:

Legal Notices

   Pine and Pico are registered trademarks of the University of
   Washington. No commercial use of these trademarks may be made without
   prior written permission of the University of Washington.
   Pine, Pico, and Pilot software and its included text are Copyright
   1989-1998 by the University of Washington.
   Use of Pine/Pico/Pilot: You may compile and execute these programs for
   any purpose, including commercial, without paying anything to the
   University of Washington, provided that the legal notices are
   maintained intact and honored.
   Local modification of this release is permitted as follows, or by
   mutual agreement: In order to reduce confusion and facilitate
   debugging, we request that locally modified versions be denoted by
   appending the letter "L" to the current version number, and that the
   local changes be enumerated in the integral release notes and
   associated documentation.
   Redistribution of this release is permitted as follows, or by mutual
   (a) In free-of-charge or at-cost distributions by non-profit concerns;
   (b) In free-of-charge distributions by for-profit concerns;
   (c) Inclusion in a CD-ROM collection of free-of-charge, shareware, or
   non-proprietary software for which a fee may be charged for the
   packaged distribution.
   The University of Washington encourages unrestricted distribution of
   individual patches to the Pine system. By "patches" we mean
   "difference" files that can be applied to the University of Washington
   Pine source distribution in order to accomplish bug fixes, minor
   enhancements, or adaptation to new operating systems. Submission of
   these patches to University of Washington for possible inclusion in
   future Pine versions is also encouraged.
   The above permissions are hereby granted, provided that the Pine and
   Pico copyright and trademark notices appear in all copies and that
   both the above copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
   supporting documentation, and that the name of the University of
   Washington not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to
   distribution of the software without specific, prior written
   permission. This software is made available "as is", and

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