Goals and Objectives

All objectives for a given year also apply to subsequent years. Objectives for the second and third year build upon objectives from previous years.

PATIENT CARE

Goals: provide patient care that is compassionate, appropriate, and effective for the treatment of infectious diseases health problems and the promotion of health.

Objectives:

First Year:

  1. Fellows will routinely gather epidemiological information relevant to an infectious diseases differential, including exposures to ill persons, immunizations, travel, animal exposures, and water sources.
  2. Fellows will be able to plan initial work up and management of common pediatric infectious diseases.

Second Year:

  1. Fellows will be able to synthesize information on complex patients with multi-organ system disease as it relates to infectious diseases.
  2. Fellows will be able to develop a plan for diagnosis and treatment of patients with complex infectious disease problems.
  3. Fellows will independently develop a plan for the diagnosis and management of common infectious diseases.

Third Year:

  1. Fellows will be able to independently develop a plan for the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases in highly complex patients, including severely immunocompromised patients, as well as patients with unusual disorders.

MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE

Goal: Fellows will demonstrate knowledge about established and evolving biomedical, clinical, and epidemiological sciences and the application of this knowledge to patient care.

Objectives:

First year:

  1. Fellows will describe the pathogenesis and natural history of patients with common pediatric infectious diseases.
  2. Fellows describe microbiological techniques and apply this knowledge to use the microbiology laboratory optimally for patient care.
  3. Fellows will describe the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of antibiotics and their interaction with other drugs.
  4. Fellows will describe the principles of infection control and hospital epidemiology.

Second Year:

  1. Fellows will list the role of the infectious disease physician in infection control including identifying and reducing the rates of nosocomial infections and indentifying situations that require isolation of hospitalized patients.
  2. Fellows will describe the pathogenesis and natural history of patients with infectious diseases occurring in specialized populations, including those with hematologic malignancies and solid organ transplants.
  3. Fellows will list the basic functions of the immune system and apply this knowledge to describe immunological basis of infectious disease syndromes.
  4. Fellows will apply principles of infection control and hospital epidemiology to a well defined clinical problem related to hospital based infection control.

Third Year:

  1. Fellows will independently identify and manage issues related to hospital epidemiology and infection control.
  2. Fellows will be recognize the signs and symptoms and understand the pathogenesis and natural history of medically important but uncommon infectious diseases.

PRACTICE-BASED LEARNING AND IMPROVEMENT

Goal: Fellows will be able to investigate and evaluate their patient care practices, appraise and assimilate scientific evidence, and improve their patient care practices.

Objectives:

First year:

  1. Fellows will identify issues that can be answered using scientific evidence, and to use a variety of sources, including textbooks and electronic resources, to identify the latest evidence.

Second Year:

  1. Fellows will assess the quality of evidence upon which decisions are made, and to use that evidence to make appropriate treatment decisions.
  2. Fellows will describe how clinical trials are conducted, and scientifically critique the published articles.

Third Year:

  1. Fellows will identify and implement projects, such as guidelines or educational interventions, which would improve the care of patients with particular diagnoses of interest.
  2. Fellows will analyze medical errors and present this information in a forum such as a Morbidity and Mortality conference.

INTERPERSONAL AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Goal: Fellows will be able to demonstrate interpersonal and communication skills that result in effective information exchange and teaming with patients, their patients families and professional associates.

Objectives:

First Year:

  1. Fellows will gather data on sensitive issues related to infectious diseases, such as sexual history, in an appropriate manner.
  2. Fellows will teach effectively on rounds.
  3. Fellows will communicate all recommendations verbally to each patient's primary team.

Second Year:

  1. Fellows will discuss treatment plans with families and patients using the principles of family-centered care.
  2. Fellows will give effective didactic presentations.
  3. Fellows will provide regular feedback to team members.
  4. Fellows will provide the appropriate information to subspecialists and foster a collaborative atmosphere.

Third Year:

  1. Fellows will use appropriate tools to resolve differences of opinion with families on the optimal plan of care for infectious diseases.
  2. Fellows will use appropriate tools to resolve differences of opinion with other providers.

PROFESSIONALISM

Goal: Fellows will demonstrate a commitment to carrying out professional responsibilities, adherence to ethical principles, and sensitivity to a diverse patient population.

Objectives:

First Year:

  1. Fellows will provide timely consultation services.
  2. Fellows will respond to pages within an appropriate time frame.
  3. Fellows will be aware of ethical issues as they pertain to a patient with an infectious disease.
  4. Fellows will consistently use interpreters to communicate with patients with limited English.

Second Year:

  1. Fellows will consistently identify and appropriately analyze ethical issues as they apply to patients with an infectious disease.
  2. Fellows will identify cultural differences that create barriers to communication and care.

Third Year:

  1. Fellows will independently address ethical issues as they apply to patients with an infectious disease.
  2. Fellows will independently address cultural barriers to communication and care.

SYSTEMS-BASED PRACTICE

Goals: Fellows will demonstrate an awareness of and responsiveness to the larger context and system of health care, including differences in patient populations and practice settings. They will develop the ability to effectively call on system resources to provide care that is of optimal value, including maximizing infection control practices by the system, appropriate antibiotic use, and guidelines of care for infectious diseases.

First Year:

  1. Fellows will effectively access infection control experts to maximize care of patients.
  2. Fellows will appropriately approve or disapprove the use of antibiotics for which their approval is required, and if disapproved, provide appropriate guidance on alternatives.
  3. Fellows will effectively use the microbiology laboratory to identify patients with blood stream infections, identify those patients who are on inappropriate antibiotic therapy, and provide appropriate guidance to the physicians caring for those patients

Second Year:

  1. Fellows will consistently identify infection control issues early in the hospital course.
  2. Fellows will routinely determine the cost of different medications used in the treatment of infectious diseases and factor this information into their medical decision making.
  3. Fellows will apply knowledge of resource limitations of practices in smaller communities and isolated rural areas when performing consultations.

Third Year:

  1. Fellows will provide appropriate expertise to optimize hospital epidemiology and infection control practices at the Hospital.
  2. Fellows will compare and contrast the wide variety of different practice patterns of different subspecialty groups (e.g. Hematology-Oncology) when managing infectious disease problems.
  3. Fellows will offer advice appropriately tailored to various practice settings, including smaller communities and isolated rural areas.
  4. Fellows will be able to formulate and edit guidelines that standardize and maximize the effectiveness of care.

RESEARCH and SCHOLARSHIP:

Goals: The goals of the subspecialty research experience are to develop an appreciation of how basic, translational and clinical research is undertaken from the initial project conception and formulation of a hypothesis-driven project to the final analysis and submission of the manuscript. An additional goal is preparing for external funding. Our fellowship focuses on basic and translational research projects, but fellows are encouraged to pursue additional, complementary projects in the 2nd or 3rd year of training to augment their training. Through this process, the fellow will obtain in-depth knowledge of a particular field of research, how research supports a better understanding of disease processes, how this knowledge enhances clinical care as well as an understanding of institutional regulation and funding mechanisms that are important to conduct research in the future.

The fellow's scholarly project is ongoing throughout the training program, beginning in year 1. Oversight, mentorship and assessment are performed by the Program director, the Research Director, the primary research mentor and the members of the subspecialty resident's Scholarly Oversight Committee, as well as Pediatric Infectious Diseases faculty.

OBJECTIVES:

All objectives for a given year also apply to subsequent years. Objectives for the second and third year build upon objectives from previous years.

MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE

By the end of the first year of fellowship training, the fellow will be able to:

  1. Apply basic concepts of epidemiology and investigational skills to interpret the findings of clinical studies in the field of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
  2. Outline basic study designs and their appropriate use in basic, translational and clinical research projects.
  3. List basic biostatical methods and the application of these tools to different types of research questions
  4. Discuss in an in-depth manner the clinical and research literature relevant to his/her scholarly area
  5. Discuss the indications and limitations of the methodologies relevant to his/her scholarly project

By the end of the second year of fellowship training, the fellow will be able to:

  1. Apply basic concepts of epidemiology to discuss the limitations of and the alternative approaches to clinical studies in the field of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
  2. Apply knowledge of study design and research methodology to their own scholarly projects, including discussion of the limitations of the current approaches and alternative methodologies that would be appropriate
  3. Utilize data management tools appropriate for his/her scholarly project
  4. Create study design and protocol for his/her scholarly project
  5. Outline the funding mechanisms and requirements for future studies related to his/her scholarly work

By the end of the third year of fellowship training, the fellow will be able to:

  1. Synthesize knowledge of study design; research methodology and literature relevant to his/her own scholarly projects to plan future research.
  2. Independently create research protocols related to his/her scholarly work
  3. Summarize the steps in preparation of research grant proposals
  4. Analyze other's research protocols and proposals as well as manuscripts

INTERPERSONAL AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS

By the end of the first year of fellowship training, the fellow will be able to:

  1. Create an accurate written protocol for his/her scholarly project. This will include detailed outline of the research, protocols for all laboratory based procedures, animal use (if appropriate) and IRB protocols (if appropriate)
  2. Write a succinct summary of his/her research project for an annual grant report
  3. Present an in-depth oral presentation about his/her scholarly work and answer questions appropriately; independently create all materials for presentation
  4. Coordinate scholarly oversight committee meetings and document the outcomes and plans in a timely manner
  5. Articulate expectations and roles of different members of the laboratory/research setting in assisting with his/her for scholarly work

By the end of the second year of fellowship training, the fellow will be able to:

  1. Create an abstract for submission to a local/regional/national meeting describing his/her scholarly work
  2. Present an in-depth oral presentation about his/her scholarly work in a setting outside of the laboratory or division of Pediatric Infectious Disease
  3. Coordinate the work flow of more than one scholarly project (possibly with more than one mentor); discuss expectations for each project and create mutually acceptable timelines for project completion with multiple mentors.

By the end of the third year of fellowship training, the fellow will be able to:

  1. Create a manuscript describing his/her scholarly work appropriate for a peer-reviewed journal
  2. Present scholarly work at a national meeting (either as a poster or oral presentation)
  3. Outline the manner in which to communicate with funding agencies about grant applications and submit manuscripts to refereed journals
  4. Outline the manner in which to respond to peer review comments on a manuscript

PRACTICE-BASED LEARNING AND IMPROVEMENT

By the end of the first year of fellowship training, the fellow will be able to:

  1. Articulate the limitations of her/his knowledge about their scholarly work
  2. Identify resources within the laboratory/division/larger ID community to improve her/his individual practices
  3. Discuss methods to assess the effects of changes in her/his practice
  4. Outline an individualized curriculum relevant to scholarship
  5. Discuss the peer review process as it relates to scholarly work

By the end of the second and third year of training, the fellow will be able to:

  1. Discuss how her/his individual curriculum relevant to scholarship is appropriate and/or how it should be modified
  2. Provide guidance to junior fellows through informal discussion about scholarly work
  3. Articulate specific items for the program to include in standard training for future fellows.

PROFESSIONALISM

By the end of the first year of fellowship training, the fellow will be able to:

  1. Apply knowledge obtained from training about requirements necessary to conduct scholarly activities (e.g. review board requirements, federal and state regulations, safety protocols) to her/his own scholarly work
  2. Discuss common challenges to professionalism that occur during the course of conducting scholarly work

By the end of the second and third year of fellowship training, the fellow will be able to:

  1. Anticipate and obtain additional training needed to conduct scholarly work
  2. Anticipate common challenges to professionalism that occur during the course of conducting scholarly work
  3. Devise methods to resolve professional challenges related to conducting scholarly work

SYSTEMS-BASED PRACTICE

By the end of the first year of fellowship training, the fellow will be able to:

  1. Discuss methods commonly used to enhance collaboration in scholarly work
  2. Discuss the peer-review process as it relates to manuscript review and grant review
  3. Compare and contrast the structure and effectiveness of the fellowship's support of scholarly work in order to improve training for current and future fellows
  4. Provide constructive feedback about colleagues' research projects
  5. Provide constructive feedback about issues in the training program related to scholarly work

By the end of the second year of fellowship training, the fellow will be able to:

  1. Identify additional mentors outside of the SOC who would provide additional opportunities for collaboration
  2. Identify resources to enhance training for scholarly work for fellows within the training program

By the end of the third year of fellowship training, the fellow will be able to:

  1. Mentor junior fellows about the methods and resources available to insure quality scholarly work
  2. Perform a formal peer review of another colleague's work

Revised May 2017