UNIT 2

Common XHTML Tags

The following are some facts about HTML and XHTML tags:

Understanding the following tables:

Common HTML tags are presented below, organized into four tables based on their purpose. The first table includes tags that control the overall structure of the web page. The second and third tables include tags that mark up the majority of web page content. Container tags (those that contain content) are presented in the second table, and non-container tags (those that stand alone) are presented in the third table. The final table contains tags that are used in markup of HTML tables, which are covered in Module 5 of this unit.

Document Structure

Opening Tag

Closing Tag

Description

<html> </html> Identifies the document as HTML.
<head> </head> Identifies the header section of your document, which is used to provide information about the document for use primarily by search engines and browsers.
<title> </title> The title of document. This element must be nested within the head elements.
<body> </body> Contains all the visible content of a web page.

 

Content (Container) Tags

Opening Tag

Closing Tag

Description

<h1> to <h6> </h1>to</h6> Headings. H1 is the main heading, H2 is secondary, etc.
<p> </p> New paragraph.
<div> or <span> </div> or </span> Serve as a container for content.
<em> </em> Gives the contained text emphasis (usually as italics).
<strong> </strong> Makes the contained text bold.
<a href = "document location"> </a> Link to another document.
<a name = "label"> </a> Link to another section of the same page.
<ol> </ol> Makes ordered lists.
<ul> </ul> Makes unordered (or bulleted) lists.
<li> </li> Marks items in either the ordered or unordered list.

Empty (Non-Container) Tags

Tag

Description

<br /> Causes a line break. It may be repeated for multiple line breaks.
<hr /> Horizontal rule. It creates a line to separate content.
<img src ="image location" /> Inserts an image into a web page.
<p /> The paragraph tag used in this manner serves as a double line break. It does not contain text. Unlike the <br /> tag it cannot be used multiple times to generate more white space.

 

Tables

Opening Tag

Closing Tag

Sample Attributes

Description

<table> </table>   Adds table.
    border="number" Border for rows & columns.
    cellpadding Thickness of cell wall.
    cellspacing Spacing between border and cell contents.
    bgcolor Background color of cells.
<tr> </tr>   Table row (start & end).
    align="left, center, right" Aligns text in row horizontally.
    align="top, middle, bottom" Aligns text in row vertically.
<th scope="row" >
<th scope="col" >
</th>   When creating a table to display data, use this tag to differentiate the first row or column of cells as heading cells for all the other cells in the same column or row. Content will automatically be bold and center aligned. The scope attribute defines which data cells pertain to the heading.
<td> </td>   Defines data cell.
    colspan="number" Spans cells across column.
    rowspan="number" Spans cells across row.
    align Alignment in cell.